Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts (J. Bioresour. Bioprod., ISSN 2369-9698) is a peer-reviewed, international online journal devoted to advance and disseminate the high-quality original research, theory, and best practice of science and engineering in all fields of bioresource-related chemicals/materials and their advanced applications. Research areas of interest include forest bioproducts and biorefinery, lignocellulose science and engineering, advanced applications of bioresources, bio-based nanomaterials and nanocomposites bioenergy and sustainability, bioresource-related innovative concepts and applications.

Volume 4, Issue 1 (February 2019)


New Editorial Team for Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts

Huining Xiao*, Yonghao Ni, Orlando Rojas, Fei Wang, Yongcan Jin, Jianshu Li


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 4(1), 1-2   Editorial           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v4i1.191                                                                                                  PDF Download


Greetings on behalf of the new editorial team of Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts (JBrB). Launched at the University of New Brunswick (UNB) in Fredericton Canada in 2016 with the inaugural volume appearing in February 2016, JBrB has successfully published 95 articles in total, included in 3 volumes (12 issues). In spite of the limited space over the published issues, a broader spectrum of interesting topics has been covered to the best of the editors’ ability. Since November 2018, JBrB has been published jointly by Nanjing Forestry University (China) and UNB, and the journal has undergone some minor changes in personnel and scopes. At the present time, the new editorial team is transitioning into its new responsibilities, whereas the scopes of the journal remain similar with very minor revisions.


1. 2019 4(1) New Editorial Team for Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts (JB&B)


Lignin-containing cellulose nanomaterials: A promising new nanomaterial for numerous applications

Chinomso M. Ewulonu, Xiuran Liu, Min Wu*, Yong Huang


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 4(1), 3-10   Review           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v4i1.186                                                                                               PDF Download


The demand for sustainable functional materials with an eco-friendly preparation process is on the rise. Lignocellulosics has been attributed as the most sustainable bioresource on earth which can meet the stringent requirements of functionalization. However, cellulose nanomaterials obtained from lignocellulosics which has reached advanced stages as a sustainable functional material is challenged by its preparation procedures. These procedures cannot best be described as sustainable and eco-friendly owning to lots of energy and chemicals spent in the pre-treatment and purification processes. These processes are intended to aid fractionation into the major components in order to remove lignin and hemicellulose for the production of cellulose nanomaterials. This work is thus centred on reviewing the progress achieved in introducing a new cellulose nanomaterial containing lignin. The preparation processes, properties and applications of this new lignin-containing cellulose nanomaterial will be discussed in order to chart a sustainable preparation route for cellulose nanomaterials.


2. 2019 4(1) Lignin-containing cellulose nanomaterials A promising new nanomaterial for numerous application


Chitosan as A Preservative for Fruits and Vegetables: A Review on Chemistry and Antimicrobial Properties

Chao Duan, Xin Meng, Jingru Meng, Iqbal Hassan KHAN, Lei Dai, Avik KHAN, Xingye AN, Junhua ZHANG, Tanzina HUQ, Yonghao Ni*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 4(1), 11-21   Review           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v4i1.189                                                                                               PDF Download


Chitosan, derived from chitin, a major constituent (in quantity) of crustaceans, is a unique aminopolysaccharide with emerging commercial potential in agriculture, food, pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals due to its nontoxic, biodegradable and biocompatable properties. Chitosan coating on fruits and vegetables has been found to be effective for the reduction of a variety of harmful micro-organims and extend the shelf-life of these products. In this review, our focus is on the antimicrobial properties of chitosan and its application as a natural preservative for fresh products. We detailed the key properties that are related to food preservation, the molecular mechanism of the antimicrobial activity of chitosan on fungi, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, coating methods for using chitosan and its formulation for preserving fruits and vegetables, as well as the radiation method of producing chitosan from chitin. Understanding the economic and scientific factors of chitosan’s production and efficiency as a preservative will open its practical application for fruits and vegetable preservation.


3. 2019 4(1) Chitosan as A Preservative for Fruits and Vegetables A Review on Chemistry and Antimicrobial Properties


Cross-laminated Timber (CLT) in China: A State-of-the-Art

Hao Li, Brad Jianhe WANG*, Peixing WEI*, Libin Wang


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 4(1), 22-30   Review           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v4i1.190                                                                                             PDF Download


As a new type of green low-carbon engineered wood product, cross-laminated timber (CLT) is widely used in various types of wooden buildings in Europe and North America, and the number of high-rise wood construction is also increasing. Based on the introduction of the structural characteristics of the CLT and the development status of the CLT in developed countries, this paper focused on the review of the status of research and development of the CLT in China, with an emphasis on the breakthrough technologies of new bamboo-wood composite CLT developed. Finally, the prospects of the CLT in China were discussed.


4. 2019 4(1) Cross-laminated Timber (CLT) in China A State-of-the-Art


Progress in the preparation and application of modified biochar for improving heavy metal ion removal from wastewater

Patric Godwin, Yuanfeng Pan, Huining Xiao, Muhammad T. Afzal*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 4(1), 31-42   Review           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v4i1.180                                                                                                PDF Download


Modified biochar (BC) is reviewed in its preparation, functionality, application in wastewater treatment and regeneration. The nature of precursor materials, preparatory conditions and modification methods are key factors influencing BC properties. Steam activation is unsuitable for improving BC surface functionality compared with chemical modifications. Alkali-treated BC possesses the highest surface functionality. Both alkali modified BC and nanomaterial impregnated BC composites are highly favorable for enhancing the adsorption of different contaminants from wastewater. Acidic treatment provides more oxygenated functional groups on BC surfaces. Future research should focus on industry-scale applications and competitive sorption for contaminant removal due to scarcity of data.


5. 2019 4(1) 180 Progress in Preparation And Application of Modified Biochar for Improving Heavy Metal Ion removal From Wastewater


Fabrication of Fe/C composites as effective electromagnetic wave absorber from natural wood fibers

Zhichao Lou, Weikai Wang, Chenglong Yuan, Yao Zhang, Yanjun Li*, Lintian Yang


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 4(1), 43-50   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v4i1.185                                                                                                PDF Download


With the increasing usage of varied electronic devices, the induced electromagnetic interference (EMI) irradiation pollution has become a novel environmental pollution besides of water and air pollutions, drawing a great of interests from the scientists to address EMW radiation problem via designing various electromagnetic wave (EMW) absorbers, which is supposed to be with light weight, thin thickness, wide effective absorbing bandwidth and strong absorbing capacity. One kind of the most attractive absorbers is magnetic carbon composites. Here, we successfully synthesized porous structural C/Fe composites by in-situ carbonization of pre-prepared Fe3O4/wood fibers at 1000°C. The EMW absorption property of C/Fe composites is excellent with a minimum RL value of -32.67 dB at 9.86 GHz, a matching thickness of 2.2 mm and a wide response bandwidth of 14.5 GHz. This excellent absorption performance is proved to be due to the continuous network of Fe3O4/Fe/ Fe3C hybrids, permitting optimal impedance matching, the strongest dielectric loss and the optimal magnetic loss. Moreover, the interface polarizations at Fe-Fe3C and Fe3O4-Fe interfaces, are positive to improve the microwave absorption performance.


6. 2019 4(1) Fabrication of FeC Composites as Effective Electromagnetic Wave Absorber by Carbonization of Pre-magnetized Natural Wood Fibers


Effects of bamboo fiber length and loading on mechanical, thermal and pulverization properties of phenolic foam composites

Qiheng Tang*, Fang Lu, Wenjing Guo


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 4(1), 51-59   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v4i1.184                                                                                             PDF Download


In order to improve the mechanical properties and toughness of phenolic foams, a reinforcement method using two kinds of bamboo fibers was optimized with respect to the fiber contents. The compressive and flexural properties, thermal stability, friability and morphology of the phenolic foam composites were studied. The mechanical properties of the pristine foam and composites were evaluated by measuring the compressive strength. The results showed that the greatest mechanical properties were achieved by incorporating 2.5wt% of the reinforcement, and the compressive and flexural strengths of the two composites increased by 26.21% and 24.35%, respectively, compared with those of the pristine foam. The results of thermogravimetric testing demonstrated that the addition of bamboo fiber imparted better thermal stability to the phenolic foam, which was mainly attributed to the higher initial thermal decomposition temperature of the bamboo fiber. However, the influences of both reinforcements on the thermal stability of the material were negligible. The incorporation of bamboo fiber decreased the friability of the phenolic foam. Furthermore, the reduction in friability of the foam composites with longer lengths were higher than that in foams with shorter bamboo fibers. Moreover, the morphology and cell sizes of the fiber-reinforced phenolic foams were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, the results indicated strong bonding between the fibers and phenolic matrix, and the incorporation of the bamboo fibers into the foam resulted in increased cell size of the material. Finally, the thermal conductivity and flame resistance of the phenolic foams reinforced by the bamboo fibers were also measured.


7. 2019 4(1) 184 Effects of Bamboo Fiber Length and Loading on Mechanical, Thermal and Pulverization Properties of Phenolic foam composites


Effect of boron compounds on the physical and mechanical properties of Chinese fir wood treated with PMUF resin

Fei Wang*, Junliang Liu, Wenhua Lv


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 4(1), 60-66   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v4i1.182                                                                                             PDF Download


Plantation Chinese fir wood was modified by low molecular weight phenol melamine urea formaldehyde (PMUF) resin and boron compounds (BB) through a progressive gradual infiltration process. The results showed that the density, dimensional stability and static flexural properties of the PMUF resin-treated wood gradually improved with the increase of resin solid content. When boron compounds was additionally introduced into PMUF resin, the density of the samples of compound modification increased, whereas the anti-swelling efficiency, the modulus of rupture and impact toughness decreased by more than 17.6%, 10.1%, 42.9%, respectively. It was demonstrated by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy that boron compounds could improve the crystallinity of resin modified samples and did not have a chemical reaction with resin or wood. Scanning electron microscope analysis indicated boron compounds made the microstructure of the resin polymers loose, influencing the mechanical properties and dimensional stability of resin modified wood.


8. 2019 4(1) 182 Effect of Boron Compounds on Properties of Chinese Fir Wood Treated with PMUF Resin


Effect of Fertilization on Anatomical and Physical-mechanical Properties of Bamboo, Neosinocalamus affinis

Jiulong Xie*, He Lu, Tingxing Hu, Cornelis F De Hoop, Hui Xiao, Yuzhu Chen, Xingyan Huang, Chung-Yun Hse


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 4(1), 67-72   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v4i1.183                                                                                             PDF Download


Fertilizers of N, P, and K were applied in the Neosinocalamus affinis plantations and the anatomical and physical-mechanical properties of N. affinis bamboo from different fertilization treatments were measured. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of fertilization practice on the properties of N. affinis bamboo wood. The results revealed that the fertilization of P and K resulted in reduction in fiber length, and the effect was insignificant. The application of P, K, and low level of N fertilizers (0.3-0.6kg/clump) had no significant effect on the fiber morphology, while high level of N fertilizer contributed to short fibers. The specific gravity was significantly decreased by fertilization, while the volume shrinkage was increased. Since the effect of various fertilization treatments had different influence on various properties of N. affinis, specific evaluations on the properties of the fertilized bamboo wood should be done prior to its utilizations.


9. 2019 4(1) 183 Effect of Fertilization on Anatomical and Physical-mechanical Properties of Ne-osinocalamus Affinis Bamboo


Volume 3, Issue 4 (November 2018)


Pickering emulsion polymerization of styrene stabilized by nanocrystalline cellulose

Xue Song, Mingqin Lin, Changsheng Song, Zipei Shi, Heng Zhang*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(4), 134-138   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i4.92                                                                                                  PDF Download


In this work, polystyrene-based oil-in-water Pickering emulsion stabilized by nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was formulated. The NCC was prepared by sulfuric-acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose, with a yield of 60% and an average particle size of about 152.9 nm. When the content of NCC was 5 g/L, the surface tension was 54.58 mN/m, and stable styrene-based Pickering emulsion was prepared using NCC as the stabilizer. The presence of NCC particles in the emulsion system resulted in high resistance against creaming. Due to improved stability, the conversion efficiency of styrene was higher in the polymerization process of the styrene-based Pickering emulsion.


1. 2018 3(4) 92 Pickering emulsion polymerization of styrene stabilized by nanocrystalline cellulose


Synthesis and characterization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) grafted eucalyptus fibers

Lifang Guo, Jun Huang, Jianfeng Xi, Qingyang Ye, Huamin Zhai*, Xiaojun Wang


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(4), 139-144   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i4.126                                                                                               PDF Download


Graft-copolymerization of bleached kraft eucalyptus fibers was carried out with glycidyl methacrylate monomer by using Fe2+-thiourea dioxide-H2O2 as an initiator system. The cellulose-poly(glycidyl methacrylate) graft copolymers (CPGMA) were characterized via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning NMR spectra (13C CP/MAS NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Results showed the grafting percent was from 0 to 244%, the epoxy group content from 0 to 4.37 mmol/g, and the grafting efficiency over 97%, when the grafting percent exceeded 38%. Additionally, the morphological analysis denoted that the grafting not only took place on the fiber surface, but also inside the fiber wall. Both FTIR and solid state 13C CP/MAS NMR analysis identified the occurrence of grafting. Fiber crystallinity was strongly affected by the percent grafting, decreasing from 69.8% (eucalyptus pulp) to 26.2% at the percent grafting of 198%. TGA analytical data indicated that GMA grafting resulted in the reduction of thermal stability of eucalyptus fibers at the percent grafting of 198%.


2. 2018 3(4) 126 Synthesis and characterization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) grafted eucalyptus fibers


On the role of medium components in bio-surfactant production from Achromobacter xylos GSR21

Golamari Siva Reddy, Kamma Srinivasulu, Botlagunta Mahendran, Ronda Srinivasa Reddy*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(4), 145-150   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i4.172                                                                                               PDF Download


This paper, for the first time, reports the optimization of the critical medium components for bio-surfactant production from achromobacter xylos strain GSR21 using statistical experimental design. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to determine the optimal levels of process variables (agar powder, yeast extract, FeSO47H2O, and KH2PO4). Central composite design (CCD) of RSM was used to study the four variables at five levels, and bio-surfactant concentration was measured as response. Regression coefficients were calculated by regression analysis, and the model equation was determined. R2 value for bio-surfactant (g/L) was tested to be 0.7222, indicating that the model fitted well with the experimental results. Verification of the mathematical model was conducted by performing the experiment with the predicted optimized values, and bio-surfactant yield was found to be 9.69 g/L. Validation of the predicted model was fitted 96.9% with the experimental results conducted under the optimum conditions. Agar powder and yeast extract was identified as efficient components for bio-surfactant (achromobacter xylos GSR21) production.


3. 2018 3(4) 172 On the role of medium components in bio-surfactant production from Achromobacter xylos GSR21


Leaching characteristics of biomass fly ash in water and a TMP spent liquor: a case study

Germaine Cave, Pedram Fatehi*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(4), 151-160   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i4.178                                                                                             PDF Download


Fly ash is considered as an under-utilized product of pulp and paper industry and is mainly land-filled. However, it can be repurposed as an adsorbent for organics of wastewater effluents. Despite efficient adsorption capability, its metal components may dissolve in wastewater and harm the environment. This investigation focused on the leaching behavior of metals from biomass-based fly ash in water at pH 6 and 12.5. A similar investigation was performed in the spent liquor of a pulping process to evaluate the extraction of metals from fly ash in such an environment that fly ash could be used as an adsorbent. The results revealed that the predominant metals leached from fly ash in water and the spent liquor were Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Na, and Si. The trace metals including Al, Ba, Sr, and Zn were also detected to a significant extent. Interestingly, the extraction of metals from fly ash in spent liquor was more limited than in water, which is beneficial for the application of fly ash in spent liquors.


4. 2018 3(4) 178 Leaching characteristics of biomass fly ash in water and a TMP spent liquor a case study


Synthesis and characterization of starch nanoparticles from cassava Peel

Selvaraju Sivamani*, Karuppasamy Archana, Ramu Santhosh, Natesan Sivarajasekar, Naveen Prasad B S


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(4), 161-165   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i4.179                                                                                                PDF Download


Starch nanoparticles are used as a matrix with natural rubber for tire making, alternative adsorbents for wastewater treatment, drug carriers, packaging materials, emulsion stabilizers and fat replacers. The objective of this study is to prepare the starch nanoparticles from cassava peel by mineral acid hydrolysis using hydrochloric and sulfuric acids and perform the characterization of starch nanoparticles with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR),X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM)It was found that the obtained yield of starch nanoparticles by H2SO4was higher than that by HCl.


5. 2018 3(4) 179 Synthesis and characterization of starch nanoparticles from cassava Peel


A Lignin-Derived Carbonaceous Acid for Efficient Catalytic Hydrolysis of Cellulose

Linhuo Gan*, Jundong Zhu


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(4), 166-171   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i4.99                                                                                                PDF Download


A solid acid catalyst was prepared from masson pine alkali lignin in waste liquor of soda pulping by a combined process of chemical activation, carbonization, and sulfonation. The lignin-derived solid acid (LDSA) was characterized by FESEM, XRD, FTIR, TGA, XPS, BET analyses, and acid-base back titration. The carbonaceous material had high thermal stability and large specific surface area (488.4 m2/g), and the structural analyses showed that it was composed of amorphous carbon bearing -SO3H, -COOH, and phenolic -OH groups. The lignin-derived catalyst was then applied to the hydrolysis of a microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) in aqueous system, and the yield of total reducing sugars was found to be 46.1%. It was proposed that good adsorption capacities of cellulose and desorption property of glucose on LDSA probably contributed to efficient catalytic hydrolysis.


6. 2018 3(4) 99 A Lignin-Derived Carbonaceous Acid for Efficient Catalytic Hydrolysis of Cellulose


Variations of cetane number of jatropha biodiesel blends with mineral diesel

Ayodeji Opeyemi Folayan*, Habeeb A Ajimotokan


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(4), 172-179   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i4.173                                                                                             PDF Download


Cetane number (CN)- a prime indicator of diesel fuel quality, is a quantity indicating the combustion behaviour of diesel fuel and compression required for ignition in diesel engines. This study examines the determination of CN of Jatropha biodiesel blends with mineral diesel using their physical properties, and their variations of CN with percentage composition of Jatropha biodiesel in the blends. Jatropha biodiesel, converted through a transesterification process of its oil, is obtained and blended with diesel to obtain blend B10 (10% biodiesel and 90% diesel) on a volumetric basis, at 25oC ambient temperature and the same basis was employed for blends B20, B30, B40 and B50. The specific gravity and mid-distillation characteristic were obtained using a hydrometer and distillation curve apparatus based on ASTM D1298 and D86 standards respectively. The CN of Jatropha oil, its biodiesel and Jatropha biodiesel blends with diesel were analytically determined, employing the empirical relationship between measured physical properties of a two-variable cetane index equation. The results show that the CN of the Jatropha biodiesel increases significantly (about 29%) after transesterification compared with that of the Jatropha oil. Moreover, the specific gravity and CN of the blends increase with the percentage composition of Jatropha biodiesel in the blends. The CN of Jatropha biodiesel is 44.10, which is 8.7% higher than that of mineral diesel (40.62). It can be implied from the research outcomes that blending Jatropha biodiesel with diesel increases the CN of the blends, thus, could be used as cetane point (number) enhancer.


7. 2018 3(4) 173 Variations of cetane number of jatropha biodiesel blends with mineral diesel


Volume 3, Issue 3 (August 2018)


Characterization of primary and secondary wastewater treatment sludge from a pulp and board mill complex to evaluate the feasibility of utilization as a soil amendment agent and a fertilizer product

Risto Pöykiö*, Gary Watkins, Olli Dahl


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(3), 88-95   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i3.174                                                                                                  PDF Download


In this study, we have determined the main important physical and chemical properties as well as the heavy metal concentrations of the primary and secondary wastewater treatment sludge from a pulp and board mill complex located in Finland in order to evaluate the utilization of these by-products as a soil amendment agent or a fertilizer product. Easily soluble Ca, Mg, K, Na, P and S concentrations in the sludges were extracted by ammonium acetate (CH3COONH4) and easily soluble Cu, Mn and Zn concentrations by CH3COONH4 + Na2EDTA. For the determination of total nutrient and total heavy metal concentrations in sludges, they were digested using aqua regia (3 mL HCl + 9 mL HNO3). The total heavy concentrations in the primary sludge were lower than the Finnish heavy metal limit values for fertilizer products. In the secondary sludge, all other total heavy metals than the total Cd concentration (4.8 mg/kg; d.w.) were lower than the heavy metal limit values for fertilizer products. Due to the low total heavy metal concentrations, which were lower than the Finnish limit values for fertilizer products, the primary sludge is a potential fertilizer. Although the total Cd concentration (4.8 mg/kg; d.w.) in the secondary sludge exceed the limit value of 1.5 mg/kg (d.w.) for fertilizer products, this residue may be used as a soil improver, a growing media or as a fertilizer product in landfill sites or in other closed industrial areas, because the Finnish limit values for fertilizer products are not applied at these sites.


1. 2018 3(3) 174 Characterization of primary and secondary wastewater treatment sludge from a pulp and board mill complex


Influence of lignin content on enzymatic saccharification of poplar wood chips by different pretreatment methods

Zhihao Wang, Min Zhang, Saisai Li, Yue Zhang, Qiang Wang*, Shanshan Liu*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(3), 96-100   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i3.136                                                                                               PDF Download


Bioconversion of lignocellulose to fermentable sugars is a promising approach to produce potential bio-based energy and chemicals. Pretreatment is the key step to remove or delocalize lignin in lignocellulose, thus improving enzymatic saccharification efficiency. In this study, three kinds of pretreatment methods (ethanol, bisulfite and sulfate) were employed to produce substrates with various lignin contents which were subsequently subjected to biological saccharification processes. Results showed that a lower lignin content led to a higher fermentable sugar yield based on reducing sugar release for all samples. Additionally, the sulfate pretreatment improved the enzymatic saccharification efficiency in a greater extent than the others. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the structure changes during pretreatment.


2. 2018 3(3) 136 Influence of lignin content on enzymatic saccharification of poplar wood chips by different pretreatment methods


Effects of storage time on fuel properties of jatropha biodiesel blends with diesel

Abdulkarim Baba Rabiu, Ajimotokan Habeeb Adewale, Rabiu Abdulkarim Baba*, Lawal Ayodeji Rilwan


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(3), 101-106   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i3.167                                                                                               PDF Download


This study investigates the effects of storage time on the selected fuel properties of Jatropha biodiesel blends with diesel. The influence of storage stability on fuel properties such as kinematic viscosity, density, pour, cloud and flash points for different Jatropha biodiesel blends at varying storage times are investigated using standard test methods. The biodiesel obtained through trans-esterification of Jatropha oil is blended with mineral diesel to obtain samples B20 (20% biodiesel and 80% diesel), B40 (40% biodiesel and 60% diesel), B60 (60% biodiesel and 40% diesel) and B100 (100% biodiesel). Results show that kinematic viscosity and density increase for each blend over the 12 weeks of storage period. Flash, cloud and pour points decrease for each blend over the period of study. B20 was observed to be the optimum blend mix as its fuel properties are comparable over the storage period to those of diesel used in the study. It can be implied from the research that while properties like kinematic viscosity and density deteriorate with time; flash, cloud and pour points are observed to have improved with storage time.


3. 2018 3(3)  167 The effects of storage time on fuel properties of Jatropha biodiesel blends


Effect of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) on the properties of gelatin based composite films

Shuaishuai YANG*, Haichao Li*, Huizhen Sun


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(3), 107-111   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i3.157                                                                                             PDF Download


Properties of gelatin composite films (with 4% glycerol as plasticizer) with different mass concentrations of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) (0.2-1.0%) were investigated. The prepared composite films with 1.0 % MFC showed the highest tensile strength (12.32 MPa) with the lowest water absorption rate (391.1 %). The composite films can be dissolved in hot water of 95°C in less than 5 minutes. However, the addition of MFC had insignificant effect on the heat shrinkage and light transmittance of the resultant composite films.


4. 2018 3(3) 157 Effect of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) on the properties of gelatin based composite films


Isolation and characterization of lignin extracted from corn stalk rind with organic acids

Qingzhi Ma, Zhiyong Li, Lifang Guo, Yan Zhang, Pengfei Wang, Jianfeng Xi, Hao Ren, Huaming Zhai*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(3), 112-117   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i3.127                                                                                                PDF Download


Lignin was extracted from corn stalk rind with organic acids based on the concept of biorefinery. The optimum conditions for precipitating lignin from the concentrated spent liquor of the biorefinery process were achieved at pH of 1.68-1.72 by the addition of water. Considerable amount of sugars, uronic acids and proteins were found in the isolated lignin, which had acid-endurable linkages with lignin. The lignin was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), 13C Nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) and Gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The phenolic hydroxyl and carboxyl group contents of the lignin were measured to be 0.45 mmol/g and 0.41 mmol/g, respectively. The lignin of corn stalk rind was found to be of guaiacyl (G), syringyl (S) and p-hydroxyphenyl (H) lignin. Acetylation and condensation reactions occurred during the biorefinery process. pho-coumaric acids were found to be esterified with lignin, whereas ferulic acids were mainly linked to lignin by phenolic groups via ether bonds. The weight-average and number-average molecular weight of the lignin were 2830 g/mol and 994 g/mol, respectively.


5. 2018 3(3) 127 Isolation and characterization of lignin extracted from corn stalk rind with organic acids


Fe/C micro electrolysis and Fenton oxidation process for the removal of recalcitrant colored pollutants from mid-stage pulping effluent

Mingyou Liu*, Lu Wang, Xianying Xiao, Zhibin He*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(3), 118-122   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i3.56                                                                                                PDF Download


The pulp and paper industry produces a large amount of colored effluent in the pulping, bleaching, and papermaking processes. The wastewater from the pulp washing and bleaching stages is also known as mid-stage pulping effluent, which is difficult to treat due to its toxicity and dark dolor. This paper reports a novel Fe/C micro-electrolysis process for the treatment of the mid-stage pulping effluent. Results show that this process is effective in removing the color under optimal reaction conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses indicate that the colored pollutants were removed from the wastewater in the Fe/C micro-electrolysis by adsorption, collection and filtration mechanisms. The Fe2+ ions produced in the micro-electrolysis process functioned as Fenton’s reagents with H2O2 in the follow-up oxidation stage, which enhanced the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color.


6. 2018 3(3) 56 Fe/C micro electrolysis and Fenton oxidation process for the removal of recalcitrant colored pollutants from mid-stage pulping effluent


Synthesis of Caboxymethyl Chitosan for the fabrication of Chitosan/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

Xuejiao Liu, Yi Jing*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(3), 123-127   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i3.116                                                                                             PDF Download


Chitosan/montmorillonite nanocomposites can impart water vapor and oxygen barrier and antimicrobial properties to paper. However, this application is limited by the low water-solubility of chitosan. Carboxymethylation can increase the water-solubility of chitosan. In this work, carboxymethyl chitosan was synthesized by grafting with chloroacetic acid, and intercalated montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by intercalation of carboxymethyl chitosan with sodium-based montmorillonite. The process conditions were optimized for the fabrication of nanocomposites. Characterizations were conducted by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and XRD. FT-IR and 1H-NMR results showed that carboxyl groups were introduced into the chitosan, and carboxymethyl chitosan was generated. XRD results confirmed the insertion of CM-CTS into interlayers of Na+-MMT. As indicated from XRD results, chemical modification of chitosan resulted in enhanced intercalation. Carboxymethyl chitosan resulted in formation of exfoliated chitosan/montmorillonite nanocomposites.


7. 2018 3(3) 116 Synthesis of Caboxymethyl Chitosan for the fabrication of ChitosanMontmorillonite Nanocomposites


Identification and characterization of slime-producing microorganisms in papermaking water loops using emulsion polymerase chain reaction techniques

Liuxin Shi, Gang Shi, Rongxia Zhuge, Qiang Cheng, Fangfang Wu, Yonghao Ni*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(3), 128-133   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i3.176                                                                                        PDF Download    


Slime formation on paper machines is a critical issue that can substantially impact the quantity and quality of paper production. This problem is caused by the growth of an abundant and diverse amount of bacteria. Through the application of emulsion polymerase chain reaction (emPCR), the bacterial diversity was analyzed on paper machines and more operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained. Eleven types of bacterial phyla were found that have been previously identified, including Proteobacteria (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, epsilon-, and phi-), Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Spirochaetes, Chloroflexi, Deinococcus-Thermus, and Armatimonadetes. Furthermore, for the first time, there were representatives of the phyla Lentisphaerae found on paper machines. This study revealed the wide bacterial diversities of slime found on paper machines in China, which was also similar to other industrial processes.


8. 2018 3(3) 176 Identification and characterization of slime-producing microorganisms in papermaking water loops using emulsion polymerase chain reaction techniques


Volume 3, Issue 2 (May 2018)


Combination of ultrasonication/ mechanical refining with alkali treatment to improve the accessibility and porosity of bamboo cellulose fibers for the preparation of magnetic bionanocomposite cellulose beads

Man Li, Guigan Fang*, Zhaosheng Cai*, Long Liang, Jing Zhou, Lulu Wei


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(2), 40-48   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i2.159                                                                                            PDF Download


Ultrasonication and mechanical refining pretreatments were carried out to enhance alkali swelling of bamboo fibers to improve accessibility and porosity. Cellulose-based magnetic beads were synthesized with the alkali swollen bamboo fibers and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Compared to the fibers treated with alkali alone, the water retention value (WRV) increased by 33.87% for the fibers treated by sonication and alkali, and by 94.58% for those treated by mechanical refining and alkali. The increased WRV was attributed to disruption of the crystalline region of fibers in the combined treatments which resulted in decreased crystallinity and degree of polymerization of cellulose. Furthermore, compared with the control sample which was treated by alkali alone, the specific surface area and pore volume of the samples treated by the combined processes increased markedly, which favored the adsorption of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the synthesis of functional magnetic cellulose beads for the applications of protein immobilization, drug carrier and wastewater treatment.


1, 2018 3(2) 159 Combination of ultrasonication mechanical refining with alkali treatment to improve the accessibility and porosity of bamboo cellulose fibers


Etherified dicyandiamide condensation copolymer as a wet-end additive for papermaking

Heng Zhang*, Pengfei Li, Hongkun Gao, Lei Xu, Junliang Lu, Xiaoyue Peng, Fenglong Zhang, Yuan Zhang


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(2), 49-52   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i2.119                                                                                                           PDF Download


Dicyandiamide-formaldehyde condensation copolymer was synthesized and used as a wet-end additive for papermaking. The retention of fibers and fines was used as a performance index. Factors were evaluated governing the performance of the polymer, including polymer dosage, pH and mixing time. The optimum dosage of the polymer was found to be 0.03% under the conditions. Overall, the polymer was effective in improving the drainage, as well as the retention of fibers and fines in papermaking process.


2, 2018 3(2) 119 Etherified dicyandiamide condensation copolymer as a wet-end additive for papermaking


Impact of shock loading with mid-stage pulping wastewater on a magnetic micro-aerobic activated sludge system

Huixia Lan*, Hao Zhang, Da Yang, Shiwen Geng, Wei Wang, Shanhong Lan


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(2), 53-58   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i2.93                                                                                                          PDF Download


The effect of mid-stage pulping wastewater (as shock load) on micro-aerobic magnetic activated sludge system was studied. Micro-aerobic activated sludge systems with and without magnetic particles were shocked with mid-stage wastewater for 16 days. “Recovery” experiments were conducted by using simulated wastewater for 12 days. Upon the addition of mid-stage wastewater, CODCr removal pertaining to the use of magnetic particles reached 71.57% and remained above 80% in the “recovery” experiment. However, the efficiency of the reactor in the absence of magnetic particles was only 37.29%, and reached about 40% in the “recovery” experiment. After the micro-aerobic activated sludge was shocked, the flocculation performance and surface properties of the sludge were analyzed, and the results showed that all indicators of the reactors in the presence of magnetic particles were superior to those of reactors without magnetic particles. After 12 days of “recovery”, the indicators of the sludge pertaining to the reactors containing magnetic particles “recovered” completely.


3, 2018 3(2) 93 Impact of shock loading with mid-stage pulping wastewater on a magnetic micro-aerobic activated sludge system


Acid-catalyzed crosslinking of cellulose nanofibers with glutaraldehyde to improve the water resistance of nanopaper

Aimin Tang*, Changyuan Yan, Degui Li, Siyu Chen


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(2), 59-64   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i2.97                                                                                                         PDF Download


In this study, cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) were crossed-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) under acid condition for tailoring the mechanical properties and water-resistance of nanopaper or films. The impact of carboxyl content of CNFs, GA concentration, temperature, pH, and reaction time on the crosslinking was investigated, and the process conditions for the crosslinking were optimized. FT-IR analyses showed that CNFs/GA cross-linked nanopaper was successfully fabricated by acetalization between the -OH groups of CNFs and the -CHO groups of GA, resulting in the formation of a dense, three-dimensional network. The elastic modulus of CNFs/GA cross-linked film was 7.66GPa, 62.98% higher than that of CNFs film. The water-resistance of the cross-linked CNFs/GA films was improved. The crossed-linked CNFs/GA films was still intact after 24 h after being immersed in water, while the CNFs films almost dissolved completely after 20 min of soaking in water. This method provides a facile route to enhance the elastic modulus and water-resistance of CNFs for potential applications including bullet-proof glass interlayer, flexible electronic device, and new packing materials.


4, 2018 3(2) 97 Acid-catalyzed crosslinking of cellulose nanofibers with glutaraldehyde to improve the water resistance of nanopaper


Evaluation of rice husk ash and Portland cement reinforced clay for use as road subgrade using the CBR test

Nneka Juliana Ogbuagu*, Emmanuel Amagu Echiegu, Uche Jenice Chiwetalu


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(2), 65-70   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i2.166                                                                                                          PDF Download


The amount of rice husk waste generated in Nigeria is posing serious threat to the environment and the ecosystem. Utilizing these wastes for productive purposes has been of interest to government and researchers. This study evaluated rice hush ash (RHA) reinforced clay for use as road subgrade, using the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) as prescribed in ASTM D1883. The clay was mixed with RHA/Portland cement in the ratios of 0% (control), 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%. Results showed that the physical properties of the soil in its natural form did not meet the FMW&H guideline specification for subgrade road; thus there was a need to stabilize the soil. As the percentage of RHA increased, the strength of the soil increased, with the maximum strength observed at 5% RHA, beyond which there was decrease in the load bearing capacity of the soil. Optimal CBR ratio of 9.35% was obtained at 5% RHA, 5% Portland cement and 90% clay soil. Comparing this result with the soil at natural state (CBR=1.55%), it shows that RHA is a good improvement agent for the soil. This research can be beneficial to highway road construction in areas with similar soil conditions.


5, 2018 3(2) 166 Evaluation of rice husk ash and Portland cement reinforced clay for use as road subgrade using the CBR test


Soft-sensing modeling of chemical oxygen demand in photo-electro-catalytic oxidation treatment of papermaking wastewater

Xuewen Zhang, Yuefei Zhu, Xiaoquan Chen, Wenhao Shen*, Ryan Lutes


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(2), 71-77   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i2.112                                                                                                          PDF Download


Photo-electro-catalytic (PEC) oxidation has been widely recognized as an effective technology for advanced treatment of papermaking wastewater. To optimize the oxidation process, it is important of monitor continuously the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of inflow and outflow wastewater. However, online COD sensors are expensive difficult to maintain, and therefore COD is usually analyzed off-line in laboratories in most cases. The objective of this study is to develop an inexpensive method for on-line COD measurement. The oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) of wastewater were selected as the key parameters, which consists of four different types of artificial neural network (ANNs) methods: multi-layer perceptron neural network (MLP), back propagation neural network (BPNN), radial basis neural network (RBNN) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN). These parameters were applied in the development of COD soft-sensing models. Six batches of papermaking wastewater with different pollution loads were treated with PEC technology over a period of 90 minutes, and a total of 546 data points was collected, including the on-line measurements of ORP, pH and DO, as well as off-line COD data. The 546 data points were divided into training set (410 data, 75% of total) and validation set (136 data, 25% of total). Four statistical criteria, namely, root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute relative error (MARE), and determination coefficient (R2) were used to assess the performance of the models developed with the training set of data. The comparison of results for the four ANN models for COD soft-sensing indicated that the RBNN model behaved most favorably, which possessed precise and predictable results with R2=0.913 for the validation set. Lastly, the proposed RBNN model was applied to a new batch of PEC oxidation of papermaking wastewater, and the results indicated that the model could be applied successfully for COD soft-sensing for the wastewater.


6, 2018 3(2) 112, Soft-sensing modeling of chemical oxygen demand in photo-electro-catalytic oxidation treatment of papermaking wastewater


A photo-catalytic reactor for degrading volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in paper mill environment

Jun Ma, Xin Tong, Zhenbin Zhang, Xiaoquan Chen, Wenhao Shen*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(2), 78-83   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i2.113                                                                                                         PDF Download


Volatile organic pollutants such as benzene and formaldehyde are commonly detected in the ambient air of paper mills. To remove these pollutants from the air, a photo-catalytic reactor was developed in this study. The reactor had a series of honeycomb aluminum meshes coated with nanosized titanium dioxide as the catalyst for the degradation reactions of gaseous pollutants. Both formaldehyde and benzene could be completely degraded in the reactor. However, the degrading time for benzene was much longer than that for formaldehyde, and the degradation rate of benzene decreased with increasing initial benzene concentration. It was found that the reaction pathway for formaldehyde in the mixture was different from that in its single component form, and it took about two times longer time to be degraded than that for its single component form. The reaction pathway of benzene was similar in either case although the degradation time for benzene was about 50% shorter in the mixture form.


7, 2018 3(2) 113 A photo-catalytic reactor for degrading volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in paper mill environment


Natural Mesoporous Activated Carbon from Toxic Plant Stellera Chamaejasme Roots by Chemical Methods

Huizhen Sun, Yute Qin, Xiaohui Liu, Haichao Li*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(2), 84-87   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i2.143                                                                                                   PDF Download    


Stellera chamaejasme, widely distributed on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, is a poisonous plant causing serious harm to grassland. Activated carbons have been prepared from the roots of Stellera chamaejasme via phosphoric acid and zinc chloride activation at500 °C for 60 min with an impregnation ratio of 3:1. Yield (25.1% -27.6%), ash (4.5%-4.9%), methylene blue ( 195.0 mg/g-254.5 mg/g), iodine value (720.4 mg/g- 810.5 mg/g), specific surface area (1023.3 m2/g-1216.7 m2/g), specific pore volume (2.13 cm3/g-2.26 cm3/g), mesopore volume (1.30 cm3/g-1.59 cm3/g) and average pore size (5.88nm-7.45 nm) of the products were determined. The results from both the zinc chloride and phosphoric acid activation processes showed that the activated carbons of S. chamaejasme roots exhibit a characterization of natural developed mesopores.


8, 2018 3(2) 143 Natural Mesoporous Activated Carbon from Toxic Plant Stellera Chamaejasme Roots by Chemical Methods


Volume 3, Issue 1 (February 2018)


Potassium hydroxide based biorefinery concepts for non-wood bioresources

M Sarwar Jahan*, Zhibin Ben He*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(1), 1-2   Editorial           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i1.165                                                                                                                   PDF Download


KOH based pulping processes can overcome the silica related scaling problems encountered in conventional kraft and soda pulping of non-wood fibrous raw materials. In addition, a KOH-based pulp mill can be easily integrated into a biorefinery with rice/wheat straws as the feed stock, and the effluent from the mill can be used as fertilizer and for soil amendment.


1, 2018 1(1) 165 Editorial Potassium hydroxide based biorefinery concepts for non-wood bioresources


Resisting Protein but Promoting Cell Adhesion by Choline Phosphate: A Comparative Study with Phosphate Choline

Fuhui Huang, Chunmei Ding*, Jianshu Li*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(1), 3-8   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i1.164                                                                                                           PDF Download


Zwitterionic materials are now widely used to fabricate various functionalized surfaces for biomedical applications due to their excellent non-fouling properties. As a newly-discovered zwitterionic material, choline phosphate (CP) was reported to be cell-adhesive, which makes it different from traditional non-fouling zwitterionic materials such as sulfobetaine, carboxybetaine and phosphorylcholine (PC). However, there are still few reports about choline phosphate, and to the best of our knowledge, a direct comparative study between choline phosphate and conventional zwitterionic materials has not been reported to date. To further investigate the properties of choline phosphate, a comparative study was conducted and the widely-reported zwitterionic phosphorylcholine, which has the same chemical component but opposite charge orientation with choline phosphate, was employed as a control. For this purpose, CP and PC-functionalized surfaces were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (Si-ATRP), and their non-fouling properties were probed by protein adsorption and eukaryotic cell adhesion measurement. The result shows that CP-functionalized surfaces exhibit almost equivalent amounts of adsorbed proteins to that of PC, but they are more beneficial to cells initial adhesion and further spreading in serum-free medium, indicating that CP has a promising prospect of application in tissue engineering.


2, 2018 3(1) 164 Resisting Protein but Promoting Cell Adhesion by Choline Phosphate A Comparative Study with Phosphorylcholine


Effects of pH Control with Acetic Acid/Sodium Acetate Buffer on the Hot-water Extraction of Poplar Wood

Yanru Liu, Yingjuan Fu*, Zhiyong Shao, Fengshan Zhang, Menghua Qin*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(1), 9-13   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i1.108                                                                                                          PDF Download


Poplar wood chips were extracted in an acetic acid/sodium acetate (SA/AA) buffer solution at 180 ºC for 60 minutes, with a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1: 6, to investigate the effect of pH on the extraction performance in terms of chemical compositions of the extract. The pH was controlled by varying the concentrations of sodium acetate and acetic acid in the buffer system. Results showed that the SA/AA system could promote the dissolution of hemicellulose, obtaining more oligosaccharides and monosaccharides, and could also inhibit the excessive decomposition of monosaccharides. When extracting poplar wood chips in a SA/AA system of pH=3.7, the yield of oligosaccharides was the highest, while the contents of furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural decreased by 25% and 30%, respectively, compared to conventional water extraction systems. Moreover, the amount of lignin extracted in the S/AA process was also higher than that in a conventional hot water extraction process.


3 2018 3(1) 108 Effect of pH Control with Acetic Acid Sodium Acetate Buffer on Hot-water Extraction of Poplar Wood


Effect of wet storage on alkali-oxygen pulping of bagasse

Zhen Shan, Bing Sun*, Yuxin Liu*, Li Bao


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(1), 14-17   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i1.123                                                                                                         PDF Download


Carbohydrate degradation is a serious problem in alkali-oxygen pulping due to the inherently oxidative reaction conditions. Hemicellulose and short-chain cellulose are particularly susceptible to degradation by oxidation, and thus have a great effect on the pulping yield, as well as the viscosity and crystallinity of resultant pulp in alkali-oxygen pulping. Removal of the low molecular weight substances by wet storage prior to alkali-oxygen pulping may increase the pulping yield and improve pulp properties, in addition to savings in pulping chemicals and energy. This paper investigated alkali-oxygen pulping of bagasse pretreated by wet storage, and results show that wet storage of bagasse had a significant effect on its alkali-oxygen pulping, in terms of pulping yield, pulp viscosity and crystallinity. The pH and time were found to be the two most important factors in wet storage on bagasse. Pulp crystallinity increased from 31.78% to 42.06% when the wet storage of bagasse was performed at pH 6.0 for 16 days. In addition, the screened pulp yield increased from 58 to 60%, and pulp viscosity increased from 650 to 700 mL/g. The improved pulping performance was attributed to increased pore volumes in bagasse due to dissolution of low molecular weight lignin and carbohydrates during wet storage, which in turn improved the selectivity of delignification in the alkali-oxygen pulping process.


4, 2018 3(1) 123 Effect of wet storage on alkali-oxygen pulping of bagasse


Catalytic depolymerization/degradation of alkali lignin by dual-component catalysts in supercritical ethanol

Cheng Zou, Haizhu Ma, Yunpu Guo, Daliang Guo*, Guoxin Xue*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(1), 18-24   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i1.161                                                                                                          PDF Download


Depolymerization of lignin is an important step to obtain lignin monomer for the synthesis of functional bio-polymers. In this paper, catalytic degradation/depolymerization of an alkali lignin was investigated in a supercritical ethanol system. The process conditions were optimized in terms of lignin monomer yield, and the liquid products and solid residue were characterized. Results show that the conversion rate of the alkali lignin was improved in both the Ni7Au3 catalyzed and Nickel-catalyzed systems with supercritical ethanol as the solvent. The maximum lignin conversion rate was 69.57% and 68% respectively for the Ni7Au3 and Nickel-based catalysis systems. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis indicated that the catalytic depolymerization products of alkali lignin were mainly monomeric phenolic compounds such as 2-methoxyphenol. The highest yield of 2-methoxyphenol (84.72%) was achieved with Ni7Au3 as the catalyst.


5, 2018 3(1) 161 Catalytic depolymerization degradation of alkali lignin by dual-component catalysts in supercritical ethanol


Dewatering & Forming Fundamentals for Roll Top-Formers and the Governing Factors in papermaking processes

Jianan Liu*, Zhen Li, Da Gao, Huiming Fan


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(1), 25-29   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i1.89                                                                                                          PDF Download


Roll top formers are widely used for Fourdrinier paper machines, typically with a speed of less than 1200 m/min. In a roll top former, wet fiber web is dewatered by the extrusion force of two wires and the centrifugal force of the roll. The present work focuses on the dewatering and forming mechanisms of roll top formers and the governing factors relevant to the structural characteristics of the formers. This study would provide usefull information for the design and applications of roll top formers in paper mills.


6, 2018 3(1) 89 Dewatering & Forming Fundamentals for Roll Top-Formers and the Governing Factors in papermaking processes


Fabrication of nanocomposite electrochemical sensors with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) conductive polymer and Au nanoparticles adsorbed on carboxylated nanocrystalline cellulose

Jinshi Fan*, Shaoping Liang, Mingming Zhang and Guiyun Xu


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(1), 30-34   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i1.142                                                                                                         PDF Download


Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared by reducing HAuCl4 with NaBH4, and then adsorbed uniformly on the surface of carboxylated nanocrystalline cellulose (CNCC). The obtained AuNPs/CNCC particles were doped into a conductive polymer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to yield a highly conductive nanocomposite, which was deposited onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by an electrochemical method. The PEDOT/AuNPs/CNCC nanocomposite showed low electrochemical impedance and good electrocatalytic activity toward ascorbic acid. Based on this novel nanocomposite material, an amperometric sensor was developed for the detection of ascorbic acid with a detection limit as low as 0.29 µM. When operated at -0.15 V, the sensor detected ascorbic acid in the range of 0.88 µM to 15000 µM.


7, 2018 3(1) 142  Fabrication of nanocomposite electrochemical sensors with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) conductive polymer and Au nanoparticles adsorbed on carboxylated nanocrystalline cellulose


Iso-concentration hydrogen peroxide bleaching of poplar chemi-thermomechanical pulp

Xianqi Sun, Qingxi Hou*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(1), 35-39   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i1.110                                                                                                   PDF Download    


Maintaining a constant chemical concentration (Iso-concentration, IC) has been found to be an effective method to improve peroxide bleaching efficiency for chemi-thermomechanical pulp (CTMP). In this study, the mechanism of IC bleaching was investigated. The concentrations of H2O2 and total alkali in IC bleaching were monitored and compared with those in conventional bleaching processes. Control experiments without pulp were carried out to explore the effects of bleaching additives on H2O2 decomposition. The results showed that the concentrations of H2O2 and the total alkali at the early and later stages of IC bleaching were relatively low and high, respectively; thus, undesired decomposition of H2O2 was inhibited, and brightness was improved. Moreover, the stabilizer played an important role in inhibiting the undesired H2O2 decomposition. This may explain why high bleaching efficiency was achieved in IC bleaching. These findings would provide valuable insight for the production of high-brightness bleached chemi-thermomechanical pulp (BCTMP).


8, 2018 3(1) 110 Iso-concentration hydrogen peroxide bleaching of poplar chemi-thermomechanical pulp


Volume 2, Issue 4 (November 2017)


Use of Lignin and Hemicelluloses for Facial Synthesis of Gold, Platinum, and Palladium Nanoparticles

Xiaobao Lin, Jiahao Wang, Xing Han, Min Wu*, Shigenori Kuga, Yong Huang*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(4), 149-152   Communication                                                                                                                                 PDF Download


For the first time, we report an environmentally benign process for the preparation of Pt, Au and Pd NPs at ambient atmospheric pressure in aqueous systems, using water-insoluble alkali lignin (AL) and hemicelluloses as reducing/protective agents. Both AL and hemicelluloses showed good performances. The solid AL acted as support for metal NPs. The metal particles reduced by hemicelluloses aggregated to larger particles, and the degree of aggregation increased over time.


Use of Lignin and Hemicelluloses for Facial Synthesis of Gold, Platinum, and Palladium Nanoparticles


Enzymatic Hydrolysis Lignin (EHL) and its applications for value-added products, a quick review

Danni Xie, Chuanling Si*, Dan Huo*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(4), 163-169   Mini Review                                                                                                                                 PDF Download


Enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL) has a variety of active groups, which endow it with excellent properties and broad application prospects. Research work on EHL will promote better utilization of lignin resources and sustainable development of ecological environment. This paper briefly reviewed the research progress on EHL structures, properties, modifications and applications. Future research and development on EHL were also discussed.


4. Enzymatic Hydrolysis Lignin (EHL) and its applications for value-added products, a quick review


Effects of steam explosion pretreatment on the chemical composition and fiber characteristics of cornstalks

Jun Xu, Guoqiang Zhou, Jun Li*, Lihuan Mo


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(4), 153-157   Original Paper                                                                                                                                 PDF Download


This paper investigated the influence of steam explosion pretreatment with or without acid as the catalyst on the chemical composition and sugar contents of corn stalks. The fiber characteristics of the pretreated corn stalks were analyzed with a scanning electron microscope, a FS-300 automatic fiber analyzer and a fully automatic surface and pore analyzer. The results showed that the steam explosion pretreatment did not change the cellulose content of the corn stalks. However, hemicellulose was degraded and a portion of lignin was solubilized in the steam explosion pretreatment process. When acid was added in the steam explosion process, the fiber surface and cell wall structure of corn stalks were damaged, the specific surface area and pore size increased, and fiber length decreased, all of which were beneficial to subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis with cellulase. However, content of polysaccharides decreased after acid steam explosion pretreatment.


2. 2017 2(4) Research, Effects of steam explosion pretreatment on the chemical composition and fiber characteristics of cornstalks


Structural Changes of Poplar Wood Lignin in Hydrothermal pretreatment in Acetic Acid - Sodium Acetate system

Quanshui Yu, Yingjuan Fu*, Zhiyong Shao, Fengshan Zhang, Menghua Qin


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(4), 158-162   Original Paper                                                                                                                                 PDF Download


Hydrothermal pretreatment of poplar wood chips was performed in an acetic acid/sodium acetate buffer medium. To characterize the structural changes of lignin in the pretreatment process, milled wood lignin (MWL) was isolated from both the un-treated and treated poplar wood chips, and analyzed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 31P-NMR, FT-IR, and GPC-MALLS. Results showed that the lignin in the pretreated wood chips had more phenolic OH groups, less aliphatic OH groups, higher molecular weight, and narrower polydispersity, in comparison with the lignin in the un-treated wood. The acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer pretreatment facilitated the removal of -OCH3 groups and the cleavage of the inter-unit linkages of beta-O-4 bond in the lignin. Furthermore, the re-polymerization of lignin in the acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer pretreatment was found to be less than that in autohydrolysis.


3. 2017 2(4) Research, Structural Changes of Poplar Wood Lignin in Hydrothermal pretreatment in Acetic Acid - Sodium Acetate system


Determination of Furfural and Hydroxymethyl furfural by UV Spectroscopy in ethanol-water hydrolysate of Reed

Haiyang Zhang, Qingwei Ping*, Jian Zhang, Na Li


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(4), 170-174   Original Paper                                                                                                                                 PDF Download


In this paper a quick method was developed to determine separate furfural and HMF concentrations simultaneously in ethanol-water hydrolysate of reed based on UV spectroscopy. Acid soluble lignin and other interfering substances were first removed by distillation as residue. The distillate was then used for the determination of furfural and HMF by measuring the maximum absorption wavelength and the absorbance at the wavelength. Results showed that the maximum absorption wavelength of the characteristic peak correlated well with the composition of furfural and HMF mixture in an ethanol-water solution, and the absorbance at the maximum absorption wavelength also had an excellent linear relationship with the sum concentration of furfural and HMF in the solution. The separate concentrations of furfural and HMF in a mixture solution could be determined by applying these correlations.


5. 2017 2(4) Research, Determination of Furfural and Hydroxymethyl furfural by UV Spectroscopy in ethanol-water hydrolysate of Reed


Preparation and application of novel chitosan-cellulose composite materials to adsorb Pb(II) and Cr(VI) ions from water

Yangmei Chen, Hongxiang Zhu*, Jianhua Xiong, Cunzhi Zhang, Yunhua Li


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(4), 175-183   Original Paper                                                                                                                                 PDF Download


This paper reported the preparation and application of novel chitosan-cellulose composite absorbents for the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cr(VI) ions in water. First, oxycellulose or dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) was prepared by sodium periodate oxidation of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). Second, based on the mechanism of the Mannich reaction, a chitosan/cellulose-based adsorbent (TSFCD) was produced through a cross-linking reaction of thiosemicarbazide (TS) with DAC and chitosan (CS), which was designed specifically for the adsorption of Cr6+ ions from water. Similarly, another chitosan/cellulose-based adsorbent (DBFCM) was also prepared with 2,5-dithiobiurea (DB) as the cross-linking agent for the adsorption of Pb2+ ions in water. The adsorption performance of TSFCD and DBFCM for Cr6+ and Pb2+ ions, respectively, was investigated under various process conditions. Variables included adsorption temperature, time, initial metal ion concentration, pH, and adsorbent dosage. The adsorption kinetics of TSFCD and DBFCM were studied, and isothermal models were developed. Results showed that the adsorption amount increased with the increase of the reaction time, and reached a maximum at about 300 min for the TSFCD/ Cr6+ system, and at about 240 min for DBFCM/ Pb2+ system. The adsorption performance of TSFCD for Cr6+ and DBFCM for Pb2+ improved at higher temperature, and leveled off at 40°C and 50 °C, respectively. In addition, the removal rate of Cr6+ increased from 49.96% to 70.22% when the TSFCD dosage increased from 0.5 g/L to 3.5 g/L. Similarly, the removal rate of Pb2+ increased from 22.23% to 99.45% with the increase of DBFCM dosage from 0.5g/L to 5.0g/L. The adsorption processes of Pb2+ and Cr6+ were in line with the pseudo-second-order kinetic and the Langmuir isothermal model.


6. 2017 2(4) Research, Preparation and application of novel chitosan-cellulose composite materials to adsorb Pb???and Cr??? ions from water


2017 International conference on forest & paper new technology and research

Bailiang Xue*, Wenliang Wang*, Sufeng Zhang*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(4), 184-185   Original Paper                                                                                                                                 PDF Download


2017 International Conference on Forest & Paper New Technology and Research (2017 ICFP) was held on September 11-12, 2017, in in Xi’an of China. This conference attracted about 150 attendees from 6 countries, 14 universities, and about 30 pulp/paper-related companies.


7. 2017 2(4) Conference, 2017 International conference on forest & paper new technology and research


Efficient utilization of lignocellulosic resources on the basis of pulp and paper processes

Jiachuan Chen*, Guihua Yang, Xingxiang Ji, Qiang Wang


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(4), 186-187   Original Paper                                                                                         PDF Download     Supporting-Information


Efficient utilization of lignocellulosic resources for producing fuels, materials, and platform chemicals through bioconversion processes has attracted overwhelming attention. Conventional pulp and paper industry consumes a huge amount of lignocellulosic resources, but their values are not fully exploited. Fractionation/bioconversion of the main components of lignocellulose for producing diversified products besides pulp and paper is a promising strategy to efficiently utilize lignocellulosic resources. In this context, the Ministry of Science and Technology of China has initiated a National Key Research and Development Program to promote the technological development and industrial transformation. Qilu University of Technology was chosen to lead this strategic project (Grant No. 2017YFB0307900).


8. 2017 2(4) Perspective, Efficient utilization of lignocellulosic resources on the basis of pulp and paper processes


Volume 2, Issue 3 (August 2017)


First International Symposium on Nanocellulosic Materials, Hangzhou, China: Spurring Research and Innovation in Nanocellulosic Materials by Bringing Creative Minds Together

Jing Shen*, Zhibin He*, Huining Xiao*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(3), 93-94   Conference Report                                                                                                                                 PDF Download


From May 20 to May 21, 2017, the 1st International Symposium on Nanocellulosic Materials, hosted by China Technical Association of Paper Industry (CTAPI) and its affiliated Nanocellulose and Materials Committee, was held in Hangzhou, China. This timely symposium attracted about 270 attendees from 8 countries, bringing creative minds together for facilitating more breakthroughs in research, innovation, and commercialization.


First International Symposium on Nanocellulosic Materials, Hangzhou, China: Spurring Research and Innovation in Nanocellulosic Materials by Bringing Creative Minds Together


Highlights of the 2017 Atlantic Biorefinery Conference

Andre Pelletier


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(3), 95-99   Conference Report                                                                                                                                 PDF Download


The 2017 Atlantic Biorefinery Conference was held over three days from June 7th to 9th, at the Hugh john Flemming Forestry Centre in Fredericton, NB. The goals of the conference mirror the goals of BioNB: to promote and foster the biotech sector in New Brunswick and the Maritimes in general. The format has been consistent for at least the last three years (years attended by the author of this report). The first day, conference attendees were divided into self-selected groups (indicated when registering) for technology demonstration tours. The following two days featured talks on technology, research, project proponents, and policy development, all in support of the bio-economy. The speaker sessions were all in one-stream. These were complimented by tradeshow booths, networking events, and facilitated business-to-business meetings, as well as a poster session for which a prize was awarded for the best student poster.


2.Highlights of the 2017 Atlantic Biorefinery Conference
Andre Pelletier


Xylan/chitosan composites prepared by an ionic liquid system with unique antioxidant properties

Hailong Gao, Na Liu*, Shuzhen Ni, Haixia Lin, Yingjuan Fu


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(3), 100-104   Original Paper                                                                                                                                 PDF Download


Antioxidant function and solubility in water are highly desirable in many applications of chitosan. In this paper, a xylan/chitosan composite was prepared in an ionic liquid system using glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent. The antioxidant activity, reducing capacity and metal ion chelating ability of the resulting composite were determined. The chemical structure and thermal stability were analyzed by FT-IR, XRD and TGA. The results showed that chitosan was successfully cross-linked with xylan by glutaraldehyde in the ionic liquid system. Compared to pure chitosan, the ABTS·+ scavenging activity of the xylan/chitosan composite increased from 10.56% to 97.59%. After cross-linking with xylan by glutaraldehyde, the reducing power of xylan/chitosan composite increased from 0.054 to 2.109. The capacity of chelating metal ion of the composite also increased from 42.35% to 86.71% compared to that of pure chitosan. An underlying mechanism was proposed to account for the improvement of the chemical properties of the chitosan in the composite.


3. 2017 2(3) Xylan/chitosan composites prepared by an ionic liquid system with unique antioxidant properties


Microwave-assisted alkali extraction of bagasse hemicellulose enhanced by an enzymatic pretreatment process

Jizhen Huang, Yuxin Liu*, Bing Sun*, Zhen Shang


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(3), 105-109   Original Paper                                                                                                                                 PDF Download


Extraction of hemicelluloses is a primary step in the conversion of plant biomass to valuable biofuels and chemicals. Hemicellulose is distributed in the fiber cell wall, and the compact structure of the fiber cell wall barricades the transport of hemicelluloses in the extraction process. In this paper we presented a novel microwave-assisted extraction process enhanced with an enzymatic pretreatment to improve the hemicelluloses extraction rate from bagasse. Experimental results showed that the enzyme dosage, alkali concentration and microwave irradiation time were main factors governing the yield of hemicellulose. The optimal conditions of the enzymatic pretreatment were: enzyme dosage of 138 IU/g bagasse and irradiation time of 30 min. Under these conditions, 86% of the hemicellulose in bagasse was extracted. After the enzymatic pretreatment the surface area of bagasse increased significantly which facilitated the subsequent microwave-assisted extraction process.


4. 2017 2(3) Microwave-assisted alkali extraction of bagasse hemicellulose enhanced by an enzymatic pretreatment process


Fabrication of cellulose based superhydrophobic microspheres for the production of magnetically actuatable smart liquid marbles

Xinping Lin, Wei Ma, Hui Wu*, Liulian Huang, Lihui Chen*, Atsushi Takahara


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(3), 110-115   Original Paper                                                                                                                                 PDF Download


Cellulose microspheres were fabricated on the basis of sol-gel transition using NaOH/urea/H2O as the solvent system. These microspheres had an average diameter of about 30 um. Upon modification with Fe3O4 and poly (DOPAm-co-PFOEA), superhydrophobic magnetic cellulose microspheres were generated, which were analyzed by FTIR, TG, XRD, XPS and water contact angle tests. Magnetic cellulose microspheres contained approximately 15 wt% of Fe3O4. Poly(DOPAm-co-PFOEA)/Fe3O4/cellulose microspheres and had a low surface energy and a high water-repellency. These superhydrophobic microspheres were also converted into liquid marbles via an easily scalable process.


5. 2017 2(3) Fabrication of cellulose based superhydrophobic microspheres for the production of magnetically actuatable smart liquid marbles


Recycled fibres and fibre sludge as reinforcement materials in injection moulded PP and PLA composites

Elina Pääkkönen*, Lisa Wikström, Heidi Peltola, Kyösti Valta, Elias Retulainen


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(3), 116-122   Original Paper                                                                                                                                 PDF Download


Wood flour or sawdust is often used as filler in conventional wood plastic composite (WPC) materials. However, there has been an increasing interest to the use of wood pulp fibres in reinforced plastic applications, because they can provide enhanced strength properties and better biodegradability characteristics for the composite. This research compares the effect of recycled fibres or side streams of paper as reinforcement in polylactic acid (PLA) or polypropylene (PP) composites. Fibre material from liquid packaging board, non-deinked old newspapers and fibre sludge from recycling processes are compared with virgin softwood kraft pulp fibres. Composites were produced by melt processing to a fibre content of 30 wt.% (or 10 wt.% fibre sludge), and the mechanical properties were investigated. Recycled fibres provided comparable, or even higher, plastic reinforcement than virgin softwood fibres. In polypropylene composites, the differences in mechanical properties between different fibre types were relatively small. Fibre sludge decreased the mechanical performance of composites but can be considered as cheap filler in cases when mechanical properties are not crucial. The possibility to use low-cost materials like recovered paper or deinking sludge in wood plastic composites is an interesting option for future sustainable applications.


6. 2017 2(3) Recycled fibres and fibrous sludge as reinforcement materials in injection moulded polypropylene (PP) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites


Modeling and Optimization of Lipid Extraction Process from Municipal Secondary Sludge for Biodiesel Production

Samir Naser Hag Ibrahim


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(3), 123-131   Original Paper                                                                                                                                 PDF Download


In the current study, the potentiality and optimization of lipid extraction from secondary sludge for biodiesel production were investigated. Four lipid extraction parameters were examined and used for process optimization and model development using Design of Experiment (DoE) method (namely methanol to hexane ratio-%, solvent to sludge ratio-ml/g, temperature-oC and extraction time-h). During the optimization process, free fatty acid (FFA) and saponifiable lipids (SLs) content of the extracted lipid were analyzed. The results revealed that, the maximum lipid extraction yield (Ylipid) predicted through numerically optimized conditions by the model for highest desirability (0.99) was 16.5% at methanol to hexane ratio (%) of 84%, solvent to sludge ratio (v/wt) of 45 ml/g, temperature at 90oC for 6 hours extraction time. The extracted lipid contained a maximum amount of 31% (wt/wt) FFA, where palmatic acid was predominant. The FAMEs yield produced from ex-situ acid-catalyzed esterification/ transesterification of the methanol-hexane co-solvent extracted lipid ranged between 4.5-5% (wt/wt) based on sludge weight. Fatty acid profile of FAMEs was found to be dominated by methyl palmitate (C16:0) representing 36% of FAMEs composition, followed by palmitoleic acid methyl ester (C16:1), oleic acid methyl ester (C18:1) and stearic acid methyl ester (C18:1) representing 24%, 18% and 10% of the FFA composition respectively. PCA analysis showed that solvent to sludge ratio (ml/g) has the highest significant positive effect on FAMEs yield (p-value < 0.05) where methanol to hexane ratio (X1), temperature (X3) and extraction time (X4) were inversely correlated with FAMEs yield. The results indicated the feasibility of using secondary sludge as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. However, the optimized conditions for maximizing extracted lipid content should not be considered suitable for FAMEs yield as well.


7. 2017 2(3) Modeling and Optimization of Lipid Extraction Process from Municipal Secondary Sludge for Biodiesel Production


Supramolecular assembly of Cp1-11 peptide and insulin for rapid-acting formulation

Weigang Wang, Sheyu Li, Zhouxiang Zhao, Anna Zhou, Yanpeng Liu, Yantao Chen*, Mingchang Lin, Guosong Chen, Chunmei Ding, Jianshu Li*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(3), 132-141   Original Paper                                                                                         PDF Download     Supporting-Information


In order to improve the life quality of diabetic patients, it is very important to develop rapid-acting insulin formulations that can mimic the physiological meal-time secretion profile of insulin in healthy people. Although several insulin analogues have been designed to provide postprandial glycemic control, still there are some serious disadvantages. A supramolecular strategy is presented here to inhibit insulin aggregation and improve its bioactivity by using Cp1-11 peptide. As a fragment of C-peptide in proinsulin, Cp1-11 peptide was found to influence insulin oligomerization by supramolecular interactions. This work demonstrates that the Cp1-11 peptide can interact with oligomeric insulin and facilitate its disaggregation into the physiologically active monomeric form. Computer simulation indicates that Cp1-11 can insert into the space between the C-terminal tail and the N-terminal helix of the B-chain of insulin, causing dissociation of the insulin dimer. The supramolecular assembly of Cp1-11 and insulin can improve the bioavailability and therapeutic effect of insulin on the control of in vivo blood glucose levels. These results suggest that Cp1-11 peptide can modulate the intermolecular interaction of aggregated insulin and prevent the transition from monomeric to multimeric states, and shows great potential for the development of an effective rapid-acting strategy to treat diabetes.


8. 2017 2(3) Supramolecular assembly of Cp1-11 peptide and insulin for rapid-acting formulation


Synthesis and application of a novel waterborne polyurethane emulsion for sand fixation

Leihao Zheng, Yan Xue*, Weilin Lin, Jialing Li, Sha Qian


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(3), 142-149   Original Paper                                                                                                                                 PDF Download


Desertification is one of the severe ecological and environmental issues in the world today. Sand fixation against wind erosion is an effective solution to the problem. In the present study, a novel waterborne polyurethane emulsion was prepared as a sand-fixing agent. Lignin and polylactic acid were incorporated as a chain extender and soft segments, respectively. The structure, viscosity and thermal stability of the polyurethane emulsions were studied by FTIR, rheological testing and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The sand fixation properties of the waterborne polyurethane were evaluated in terms of the water retention, compressive strength, thermal stability and anti-wind erosion ability of sand crusts formed by spraying the emulsion on sands. With the increase of lignin content, both the water retention and compressive strength increased with the highest values of 39.22% and 1.13 MPa, respectively. All the sand specimens treated by the waterborne polyurethane presented good thermal stability and wind erosion resistance.


9. 2017 2(3) Synthesis and application of a novel waterborne polyurethane emulsion for sand fixation


Volume 2, Issue 2 (May 2017)


Nanocellulosic Materials: Research/Production Activities and Applications

Xingye An, Dong Cheng, Jing Shen, Qingming Jia, Zhibin He, Linqiang Zheng, Avik Khan, Bo Sun, Bitao Xiong, Yonghao Ni*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(2), 45-49   Perspectives                                                                                                                                 PDF Download


Nanocelluloses have emerged as novel materials and attracted significant interest from both academia and industry. Nanocelluloses can now be produced at pilot plant and pre-commercial scales, and even at commercial scales in some regions in the world. Successful commercial applications of nanocelluloses have entered commercial stages though their full potentials are yet to be developed. In this short communication, the applications of these nanomaterials are high-lighted, including high-volume applications (e.g., paper, textiles), high-value applications (e.g., aerogels and structure materials for aerospace), and novel/emerging applications (e.g., organic light emitting diodes, photonic films). Close collaboration between industries and the academic world would facilitate the development of commercial markets for using nanocelluloses in existing/new areas.


1. 2017 2(2) Nanocellulosic Materials: Research/Production Activities and Applications


Towards greener and more sustainable cellulose-based hand sanitizer products

Bo Sun, Min Zhang, Zhibin He, Linqiang Zheng, Jing Shen, Yonghao Ni*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(2), 56-60   Perspectives                                                                                                                                 PDF Download


More than 85% of the currently marketed hand sanitizer products are alcohol-based products, and the alcohol content is usually about 70% in order to be effective. The high alcohol content can cause dehydration, which is undesirable for sensitive skin, particularly for children. This creates opportunities for the development of innovative hand sanitizer products that are free of alcohol and have green nano-cellulose-based materials as carriers for the antibacterial agents. Good skin affinity and biocompatibility are the special features of the newly developed products, which would satisfy the need of the general public for green products.


3. 2017 2(2) Towards greener and more sustainable cellulose-based hand sanitizer products


Effect of nutritional bio-stimulants (NBS) on the biological treatment of the wastewater from traditional Chinese medicine production

Liming Jing*, Zhijian Li, Fei Du, Anlong Zhang, Wenjuan Xi


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(2), 50-55   Original Paper                                                                                                                                 PDF Download


Nutritional bio-stimulant (NBS) technology is an attractive method to improve the efficiency of biological treatment of wastewater by stimulating the microbial growth and increasing species diversity. In this study, a commercial NBS, which consisted of organic acids, absorbable nitrogen and phosphorus and trace elements, was applied as a nutrient supplement to replace conventional chemical fertilizer (CCF) in aerobic biological treatment of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wastewater. A mill trials was carried out in a commercial scale TCM wastewater treatment system for 41 days. The process performance and active sludge characteristics were continuously monitored when the CCF was replaced with NBS gradually in the system. It was found that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the effluent decreased from 118 to 89 mg·L-1, well below the 100 mg·L-1 wastewater discharge limit, when the CCF was replaced with NBS completely. More importantly, the ammonia concentration of the effluent stayed constantly low in the NBS stage of the trial, indicating that the added NBS was completely utilized by the microorganisms. In contrast, the effluent ammonia concentration was gradually increasing and exceeded the limit in the CCF stage of the trial, indicating that the CCF was not fully utilized by the microbes. The improved perfromance of the aerobic wastewater treatment system was attributed to the fact that the NBS nutrients were more bio-available than the CCF to the microorganisms.


2. 2017 2(2) Effect of nutritional bio-stimulants (NBS) on the biological treatment of the wastewater from traditional Chinese medicine production


Hydrothermal reduction of graphene oxide by glucose for the preparation of graphene/polyester staple sponge and its applications in oil spill cleanup

Ruihan Wu, Yitong Bai, Zhu Ming, Lingyun Chen, Hua Yang, Sheng-Tao Yang*, Jianbin Luo*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(2), 61-66   Original Paper                                                                                                                                 PDF Download


Graphene/polyester staple sponge (GPSS) is a high-performance adsorbent for the cleanup of crude oil spill, but the use of hydrazine hydrate as the reducing agent for the preparation of GPSS is not friendly to the environment. Herein, we reported that graphene oxide/polyester staple composite could be hydrothermally reduced by bioresource glucose to prepare GPSS of similar performance. GPSS could be applied in the absorption of oils and organic solvents thanks to its large pore volume and hydrophobicity. The absorption capacity of the novel glucose-reduced GPSS was competitive to those of the most effective absorbents for oil spill cleanup. The used GPSS could be easily regenerated by soaking in ethanol to remove the absorbed oil. The green synthesis, high oil absorption performance and easy recycling of the glucose-reduced GPSS make it a good candidate for cleaning oil spills.


4. 2017 2(2) Hydrothermal reduction of graphene oxide by glucose for the preparation of graphene/polyester staple sponge and its applications in oil spill cleanup


Preparation of polydopamine based redox-sensitive magnetic nanoparticles for doxorubicin delivery and MRI detection

Le Shang, Qiuyue Wang, Kanglong Chen, Jing Qu, Juan Lin, Jianbin Luo*, Qinghan Zhou*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(2), 67-72   Original Paper                                                                                                                                 PDF Download


A novel polydopamine based redox-sensitive magnetic nanoparticles assembled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were prepared for the biomedical application to deliver doxorubicin (DOX) for cancer therapy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection. The major components of the nanoparticles include SPIONs and the redox-sensitive polydopamine (rPDA) crosslinked copolymer, where N,N-Bis (acryloyl) cystamine served as cross-linker, dopamine methacrylamide and polyethylene glyco methyl ether methacrylate acted as comonomers. Here the rPDA@SPIONs were formed by the ligand exchange reaction of dopamine moiety with the oleic acid layer capped on the surface of SPIONs, and the inner area of the nanoparticles formed a reservoir for DOX, while the hydrophilic PEG moiety helped the nanoparticles well-dispersible in aqueous solution. The DOX-loaded rPDA@SPIONs demonstrated a high drug loading efficiency of 857 µg DOX per mg iron, and a strong T2 relaxivity of 123 mM-1•S-1 for MRI. The drug release analysis of drug-loaded nanoparticles showed a sustained and high cumulative drug release in GSH up to 73% within 48 h, rather than the relatively low release rate of 37% in PBS (pH 7.4) without GSH. All the results showed that the designed magnetic nanoparticle may be a promising vehicle for anticancer drug delivery with stimuli-triggered drug release behavior, and also a foundation for building smart theranostic formulations for efficient detection through MRI.


5. 2017 2(2) Preparation of polydopamine based redox-sensitive magnetic nanoparticles for doxorubicin delivery and MRI detection


Wet oxidation of activated carbon for enhanced adsorptive removal of lignin from the prehydrolysis liquor of kraft-based dissolving pulp production in an integrated forest biorefinery

Baobin Wang, Guihua Yang*, Qiang Wang, Lucian A. Lucia, Tingpeng Jia, Jiachuan Chen*, Guigan Fang


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(2), 73-81   Original Paper                                                                                                                                 PDF Download


Prehydrolysis is a key step for the production of kraft-based dissolving pulp. The pre-hydrolysis liquor mainly contains hemicellulosic components. Lignin can also be released into the pre-hydrolysis liquor, which hinders the purification and utilization of these hemicellulosic components. In this work, wet oxidation of activated carbon with nitric acid was employed to enhance the adsorptive removal of lignin from the pre-hydrolysis liquor. Under mild oxidation conditions (2% nitric acid solution), the oxidization of activated carbon resulted in significant enhancement of lignin removal. Adsorption isotherms showed that the specific surface area and the amount of carboxyl groups were affected by the oxidation treatment. The selective removal of lignin fitted well with the pseudo-second order kinetics model.


6. 2017 2(2) Wet oxidation of activated carbon for enhanced adsorptive removal of lignin from the prehydrolysis liquor of kraft-based dissolving pulp production in an integrated forest biorefinery


Recovery of calcium carbonate waste as paper filler in the causticizing process of bamboo kraft pulping

Tian He*, Mingyou Liu


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(2), 82-88   Original Paper                                                                                                                                 PDF Download


In this paper, calcium carbonate waste was recovered as paper filler from the causticizing process of bamboo kraft pulping. The effects of the causticizing process parameters on the filler qualities were investigated, in terms of the whiteness, tear strength, tensile strength and ash content of the filled paper. To investigate the effect of silica content on the qualities of the resultant calcium carbonate filler, the green liquor was desiliconized with aluminum salt modified bentonite prior to the causticizing process to obtain calcium carbonate of various silicon contents, particle size and brightness, and different crystal morphology. It was found that the ionic strength and silicate concentration were the two key factors in affecting the size and shape of the calcium carbonate particles formed in the causticizing process.


7. 2017 2(2) Recovery of calcium carbonate waste as paper filler in the causticizing process of bamboo kraft pulping


Fabrication of highly water-repelling paper by surface coating with stearic acid modified calcium carbonate particles and reactive biopolymers

Zhiwei Wang, Min Yi, Zheyun Zhang, Cancan Zhu, Qimin Feng, Peng Lu*, Shuangfei Wang


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(2), 89-92   Original Paper                                                                                                                                 PDF Download


Cellulose paper is the most attractive green packaging material due to its recyclability, renewability, sustainability and biodegradability. In some applications, paper with a high level of water resistance is desirable to meet specific requirements in modern packaging fields. This research aimed to develop a water-repelling paper with cost-effective and nontoxic materials. Commercial precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) particles were modified by stearic acid (SA) and incorporated with soybean oil-based binder as a water repelling coating agent. The water-repelling efficiency of the coated paper was highly dependent on the ratio of SA / PCC as well as the binder content in the coating formula. PCC particles modified with 12wt% SA were efficient in increasing the water contact angle (WCA) of the coated paper to 146° at a coating weight of 5 g/m2. The binder for the coating was synthesized with acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) through Michael addition reaction. The triglyceride structure in the polymer chain imparted good bio-degradability to the binder polymer. It was found that surface modification of PCC with stearic acid played an important role in improving the WCA of paper. A super hydrophobic paper with a WCA of 162° was fabricated with a coating formula of 60% SA-modified PCC and 40 wt% AESO-binder.


8. 2017 2(2) Fabrication of highly water-repelling paper by surface coating with stearic acid modified calcium carbonate particles and reactive biopolymers






Volume 2, Issue 1 (February 2017)


Smart drug delivery system based on nanocelluloses

Jing Xie and Jianshu Li*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(1), 1-3   Perspectives                                                                                                                                 PDF Download


Performing excellent mechanical robustness, hydrophilicity, biocompatibility and good biodegradability, nanocelluloses have special functions, such as tissue repair, regeneration and healing, sensors, antimicrobial nanomaterials, shape memory materials and smart membranes, and so on. Nanocelluloses made from different raw materials can also show diverse drug delivery effects and mechanism. Combining stimuli-responsive materials, nanocelluloses and their derivatives (CNF, CMC, HPC, HEC, etc.) show great potential applications in drug delivery systems because of their outstanding biocompatibility, biodegradability and stimuli-responsiveness. Nanocellulose-based composites show great controlled drug delivery in diverse morphologies including microparticles, hydrogel, membrane and aerogel, and so on. With the present improvement and breakthrough of the nanocellulose modification techniques, nanocelluloses are drawing tremendous attentions in drug delivery systems and continue to grow in the future.



Recent progress on the pretreatment and fractionation of lignocelluloses for biorefinery at QIBEBT

Bin Li*, Chao Liu, Guang Yu, Yuedong Zhang, Haisong Wang, Xindong Mu and Hui Peng*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(1), 4-9    Mini Review                                                                                                                         PDF Download


Pretreatment and fractionation are amongst the key steps for the conversion of lignocelluloses to sustainable biofuels, biomaterials or biochemicals, as pretreatment/fractionation can break the natural recalcitrance of lignocelluloses, improving the conversion efficiency of downstream processes. This paper reviews the recent progress on the pretreatment and fractionation of lignocelluloses for biorefinery at the Chinese Academy of Sciences - Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT). The main technologies developed at the QIBEBT in recent years include alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment, modified alkali pretreatment, hydrogen peroxide-assisted sodium carbonate pretreatment, fractionation with formic acid, as well as the two-step fractionation by hot water treatment coupling ammonium sulfite treatment. With the development of these technologies, a pilot scale platform for the pretreatment and saccharification of biomass has been established in the pilot plant of QIBEBT


2. 2017 2(1) Recent progress on the pretreatment and fractionation of lignocelluloses for biorefinery at QIBEBT


Sustainable preparation and characterization of thermally stable and functional cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibrils via formic acid hydrolysis

Haishun Du, Chao Liu, Dong Wang, Yuedong Zhang, Guang Yu, Chuanling Si, Bin Li*, Xindong Mu, Hui Peng


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(1), 10-15   Original Paper                                                                                                                          PDF Download


In this work, a sustainable method to prepare functional cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) using formic acid (FA) (a recoverable organic acid) was established. After FA hydrolysis, the obtained CNCs could be well dispersed in DMAC. Thus, the CNC products and fibrous cellulosic solid residue (FCSR) in DMAC could be easily separated by a conventional centrifugal process, and the collected FCSR could be further fibrillated to CNFs with relatively low-intensity mechanical fibrillation process. The isolated CNC products showed high crystallinity index (about 75%) and excellent thermal stability (with onset thermal degradation temperature of 325 ºC). Both the resultant CNCs and CNFs showed better dispersibility in DMSO, DMF and DMAC respectively because of the introduction of ester groups on the surface of the products. The presence of surface ester groups could increase the interface compatibility of nanocelluloses with polymeric matrices and enable their applications in reinforcing polymeric matrix materials (e.g. the composite films like PHVB+CNFs).



Enzymatic activation of dissolving pulp with cationic polyacrylamide to enhance cellulase adsorption

Qiang Wang*, Tianzhong Yuan, Shanshan Liu, Guihua Yang, Wenhai Li and Rendang Yang


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(1), 16-19   Original Paper                                                                                                                       PDF Download


Cellulase treatment is a promising technology to improve the properties of dissolving pulp in an environmental friendly way. Increasing the cellulase treatment efficiency is of practical interest. In the present study, the concept of using cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) to enhance the cellulase treatment efficiency was demonstrated. The hypothesis was that the CPAM would attribute to the increased cellulase adsorption onto cellulose fibers based on the patching/ bridging mechanism. Results showed that the viscosity decrease was improved with the addition of 250 ppm of CPAM under the same conditions as those of the control. Degraded cellulose content was increased based on the alkaline solubility analysis, while alpha- cellulose content kept constant. The CPAM- assisted cellulase treatment concept may provide a practical alternative method for upgrading dissolving pulp.




Integration of hemicellulose recovery and cold caustic extraction in upgrading a paper-grade bleached kraft pulp to a dissolving grade

Chen Gong*, Yu Shi, Jian-Ping Ni, Xiao-Bo Yang, Yan-Zhao Liu, Chao Tian*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(1), 20-23   Original Paper                                                                                                                        PDF Download


In this study, a hemicellulose recovery process was integrated with a cold caustic extraction (CCE) process in upgrading paper-grade bleached kraft pulp to dissolving grade. Under the conditions of 15% NaOH, 10% pulp consistency, 30 and 1 h, a paper-grade softwood bleached kraft pulp was purified to a dissolving-grade pulp with 97.57% α-cellulose and 1.67% pentosan contents. The spent liquor from the cold caustic extraction process was sequentially extracted with ethanol to precipitate and recover the dissolved hemicelluloses, followed by evaporation to recover the ethanol. After the recovery of hemicelluloses and ethanol, the spent liquor can be reused as the caustic solution for the CCE process without compromising the resulting pulp properties. The results demonstrated that it is feasible to integrate hemicellulose production with the cold caustic extraction process of dissolving pulp production, based on the concept of biorefinery.



Variation of chemical characteristics and pulpability of dhaincha (Sesbania bispinosa) on location

 Mamon Sarker, Shrikanta Sutradhar, AKM Golam Sarwar, M. Nashir Uddin, Sontosh C. Chanda and M. Sarwar Jahan*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(1), 24-29    Original Paper                                                                                                                      PDF Download


Dhaincha (Sesbania bispinosa) is a crop generally cultivated for improving soil quality. Due to the lack of forest worldwide, alternative source of raw materials for cellulose industries is the main concern today. In this investigation dhaincha samples were collected from 21 accessions of different districts of the country in order to study variation of chemical characteristics and its pulpability. The lignin, pentosan and α –cellulose content were varied from 21 to 23%, from 16 to 18% and from 38 to 43%, respectively. The highest and lowest α –cellulose content were found in two location of Mymensngh district. There was no correlation was found among the district. Therefore, pulping of dhaincha from selected seven districts was carried out in kraft process at the conditions of 18% active alkali at 170 oC for 2 h. But the pulping properties did not show any mentionable distinction for place variation. Average pulp yield is 42.9% with kappa number 11. The highest brightness 85% ISO was reached with D0EpD1 bleaching. The papermaking properties were very close to the conventional raw materials used in Bangladesh. Therefore, dhaincha can be used as a raw material for pulp production in Bangladesh.


 Effect of surface modification of ammonium polyphosphate–diatomite composite filler on the flame retardancy and smoke suppression of cellulose paper

Huifang Zhao and Lizheng Sha*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(1),30-35   Original Paper                                                                                                                       PDF Download


Ammonium polyphosphate–diatomite composite filler (APP-diatomite composite filler) was modified with silane coupling agent KH550 to improve the flame retardancy of filled paper. Cone calorimeter was used to analyze the heat and smoke releasing rates, as well as smoke toxicity of the filled paper. The distribution of the composite filler particles in paper and the morphology of the charred residues after combustion were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the chemical structure of the charred residues was studied with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results show that the peak heat releasing rate (PHRR), total heat release (THR) and peak mass loss rate (PMLR) of the filled paper with the modified APP-diatomite decreased markedly, compared with those for the control paper, while the charred residue after combustion increased. In addition, the filled paper had an increased peak rate of smoke release (RSR) and increased total smoke release (TSR) and peak CO production rates, but a decreased peak CO2 production rate. It was also found that part of the carbon element in the charred residue of the paper loaded with the modified APP-diatomite was in the forms of C=C=C, C≡C and C≡N, and the charred residue had a relatively more intact structure without apparent fiber breakage and longitudinal cracks.


 Tailoring starch-engineered mineral particles towards enhanced interaction with cellulosic fibers 

Ting Li, Jun Fan, Jie Qi, Lina Liu, Limei Li, Xueren Qian, Qingwen Wang, Yonghao Ni and Jing Shen*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 2(1), 36-44   Communication                                                                                                                        PDF Download


Interaction of unmodified starch with guest molecules or ligands (e.g., fatty acids) as a basis for the formation of starch-encapsulated mineral filler particles is an effective process for mitigating the negative impact of filler addition on the strength properties of cellulosic networks. As unmodified starch is essentially nonionic, the interaction of starch-engineered fillers with negatively charged cellulosic fibers is somehow limited. Here, the concept of substituting unmodified starch with a minor amount of cationic starch in filler engineering with starch inclusion complexes was proposed. It was hypothesized that filler-fiber interaction would be enhanced by cationic-anionic attraction. Encouragingly, the effectiveness of this concept was demonstrated to be very pronounced. For instance, at a cationic starch percentage of 3% (relevant to the weight of total starch), filler retention and filler bondability with cellulosic fibers were significantly improved, leading to further mitigated negative impact of filler addition on tensile strength. Basically, this easily scalable concept may shed light on greener, more efficient use of filler technologies on the basis of starch inclusion complex formation, opening up new possibilities for real commercial applications.








Volume 1,Issue 4 (November 2016)


 Booming research publications in China

Jing Shen*, Linqiang Zheng*, Zhibin He*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(4), 159-161   Editorial                                                                                                                                 PDF Download

China has become a leading powerhouse in global research community. The boom of scientific and technical papers published by Chinese researchers in terms of both quantity and quality has been well received. However, concerns have been raised on current publication drives.



A quick review of the applications of nano crystalline cellulose in wastewater treatment

Hunan Liang*, Xiao Hu


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(4), 199-204    Mini Review                                                                                                                         PDF Download


Cellulose, as the most abundant natural biopolymers in the world, has attracted much attention in recent years, as concerns have been raised on environmental issues associated with the use of petroleum related products. Nano crystalline cellulose (NCC) is a special type of cellulose that is derived from renewable and sustainable resources such as cotton and wood. NCC has a large specific surface area with plentiful hydroxyl and anionic sulfate ester groups, which make NCC a perfect substrate for preparing composite absorbing and/catalytic materials for wastewater treatment. This paper reviews recent research on the applications of NCC in wastewater treatment.


Fabrication and characterization of microfibrillated cellulose and collagen composite films

Wenhang Wang*, Yabin Wang, Yanan Wang, Xiaowei Zhang, Xiao Wang, Guixian Gao


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(4), 162-168   Original Paper                                                                                                                          PDF Download


Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)-collagen composite films were prepared with a dispersion of acid swollen collagen fibers and carboxylated MFC at different ratios in an alkaline homogenous system. The surface topographic results obtained from SEM analyses indicated that the MFC entangled uniformly with collagen in the film and formed a closely interwoven network to reinforce the film structure. However, the MFC addition decreased the smoothness and light transparency of the films due to the aggregation of MFC. Compared to the film prepared with pure collagen, the hybrid composite film showed a higher strength and Young’s modulus but lower elongation. The swelling of the composite film in water increased with the increase of the MFC ratio in the film matrix. DSC and TG analyses demonstrated that adding MFC to collagen benefited the thermal stability of the films, due to the conformational and crystal changes in the MFC/collagen structure indicated by the FT-IR and XRD results. The MFC/collagen composite film can potentially be used as an edible material in the food and packaging industry, in particular for meat products.


Chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oil extracted from Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae) flower

Oludare O. Agboola*, Stephen Oyedeji, Joshua O Olowoyo., Abdulwakeel Ajao, Oladipo Aregbesola


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(4), 169-176   Original Paper                                                                                                                       PDF Download


The upsurge in the prevalence of side effects of many synthetic antimicrobial agents and incidence of multidrug resistant bacteria has spurred scientists on the search for plant based antimicrobial of therapeutic potentials. The study extracted essential oils from the flowers of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray (Mexican sunflower) and assayed it for antimicrobial activities. The oils were extracted (hydro-distillation), characterized (GC-MS) and tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities. α-Pinene (34.42%), β-Caryophyllene (22.34%), β-Pinene (11.14%), Germacrene-D (11.13%) and 1, 8-Cineole (8.76%) were the major constituents of the forty-five compounds characterized. The characterized compounds were general monoterpenes (44.44%), sesquiterpenes (26.67%), including alcohols and aldehydes which accounted for 28.89%. The extract concentrations of 8-120 mg/ml in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium effectively inhibited the tested fungi in vitro. At 5 mg/ml, only Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus cereus were inhibited of all gram-positive bacteria while Streptococcus pyrogens was unaffected. All gram-negative bacteria were inhibited. Growth inhibition of the gram-positive and gram-negative species increases with increased concentration of the essential oil. At 40 mg/ml, all the tested bacteria species were inhibited and the growth inhibition for the species followed the order; E. coli> Proteus mirabi> Bacillus megaterium> Klebsiella pneumonia> Bacillus cereus> Streptococcuspyrogens. The oil concentration of 72 mg/ml totally inhibited the growth of all three fungal species - Cochliobolus lunatus, Fusarium solani, Fusarium lateritum. The secondary metabolites in the oil of T. diversifolia proved effective against the tested bacteria and fungi species. The finding of this study unlocks the potentials of this essential oil of Mexican sunflower for bio-pesticide production.



2012-10-30 08.53.542012-10-30 13.25.02


Optimization of the extraction process for flavonoids from basil (Ocimum basilicum) using response surface methodology

Lei Wu, Ju-Wu Hua, Wei Xiong, Guan-Hua Wang, Lin Dai, Young-Soo Bae, Chuanling Si*, Wei-Chen Hu*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(4), 177-185   Original Paper                                                                                                                        PDF Download


Basil (Ocimum basilicum), an edible and medicinal plant with high nutritional value and therapeutic efficacy, was used as a potential source of total flavonoids in this study. Heat reflux extractions were performed using aqueous ethanol. The optimized extraction conditions of total flavonoids from O. basilicum were determined by Box-Behnken design with response surface methodology. Response surface plots showed that the optional four independent variables significantly influenced the extraction yield of total flavonoids. The extraction parameters for the highest total flavonoids yield were optimized as: extraction temperature of 79.74 °C, ethanol concentration of 77.63%, ratio of liquid to material of 29.72:1 (mL/g), and extraction time of 2.06 h. The average yield of total flavonoids under above optimum parameters was 42.61 mg of rutin equivalents per g of extract dry matter, which was in good agreement with the predicted value of 40.23 mg/g. These optimized conditions could be useful for the extraction of flavonoids from O. basilicum.



Improving the physical properties of nano-cellulose through chemical grafting for potential use in enhancing oil recovery

 QinZhi Li, Bing Wei*, Yan Xue, Yangbing Wen, Jing Li


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(4), 186-191    Original Paper                                                                                                                      PDF Download


The performance of nano-cellulose fluid as a "green" flooding agent in enhancing oil recovery was evaluated in our previous study. Expanding upon our prior findings, in this study the physical properties of nano-cellulose were further improved through chemical grafting with 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid monomer (AMPS) and alkyl chain. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation indicated that the morphology of the nano-cellulose maintained fibrillar and was not altered after the chemical modification. The thermal stability of the AMPS and alkyl chain grafted nano-cellulose was investigated through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). A similar thermal response behavior was observed for the three evaluated samples. Compared to the non-grafted nano-cellulose, the grafted nano-cellulose remained homogenous in an electrolyte solution against storage time, suggesting a superior sanity-tolerance. Rheological analysis also proved the advanced viscoelastic properties of the nano-cellulose dispersion.


Cellulose-based photocatalytic paper with Ag2O nanoparticles loaded on graphite fibers

Huabin Chen, Wenxia Liu*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(4), 192-198   Original Paper                                                                                                                       PDF Download


TiO2 nanoparticle is the most extensively used photocatalyst for photocatalytic paper. However, TiO2 nanoparticle is active only under UV light that accounted for less than 5% of the solar light energy. There is a need to develop a photocatalytic paper with full spectrum photoactivity. Herein, a full spectrum photocatalytic paper was fabricated by incorporating cellulose fibers with graphite fibers which were pre-loaded with Ag2O nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) testing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination confirmed the loading of the Ag2O nanoparticles onto the graphite fibers. The photocatalytic activity of the paper was evaluated with the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under ultraviolet, visible or near-infrared light irradiation. It was found that the degradation rate of MO could reach 32%, 19% and 19% under UV, visible and NIR light, respectively after 3 h of irradiation. Meanwhile, the photocatalytic paper was very stable and can be reused repeatedly. Antibacterial tests showed that the photocatalytic paper could inhibit Escherichia coli (E. coli) growth under office lighting condition.


Interfacial properties of nano TiO2 and cellulose paper coating 

Yingzheng Liu, Bin Li*, Youming Li* and Helen Ocampo


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(4), 205-212   Original Paper                                                                                                                        PDF Download


This paper examined different kinds of organic functional groups that were introduced onto the surface of nano TiO2 by surface modification with different types of zircoaluminate coupling agents. The modified nanoTiO2 products with different interfacial properties were obtained, and the impact of the interfacial properties of nanoTiO2 on the rheological behavior of paper coating and the properties of coated paper was systematically investigated. The steady shear rheological results showed that the paper coatings containing nano TiO2 exhibited a pseudoplastic fluid behavior, characterized as obvious shear thinning. Compared to the hydrophilic unmodified nano TiO2, modified nano TiO2 could contribute more to the viscosity of paper coatings. The study on the dynamic viscoelasticity revealed that, through the enhancing action among each component in paper coatings, the modified nano TiO2 with quaternary amine groups or carboxyl led to a higher dynamic elastic storage modulus and viscous loss modulus of paper coatings. In addition, SEM and AFM analyses indicated that adding modified nano TiO2 products in paper coating could improve the coating structure, thus ameliorating the optical properties and printability of coated paper. The results obtained could provide a good reference for the application of nano pigments in paper coating.







Volume 1, Issue 3 (August 2016)


 An overview of bio-based polymers for packaging materials

Yuanfeng Pan*, Madjid Farmahini-Farahani, Perry O’Hearn, Huining Xiao and Helen Ocampo


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(3), 106-113   Review                                                                                                                                 PDF Download

Synthetic polymers are the most widely used materials for packaging because of their ease of processing, low cost, and low density. However, many of these materials are not easily recyclable and are difficult to degrade completely in nature, creating environmental problems. Thus, there is a tendency to substitute such polymers with natural polymers and copolymers that are easily bio-degraded and less likely to cause environmental pollution. There has been a greater interest in poly-lactic acid (PLA), poly-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), cellulose and starch based polymers and copolymers as the emerging biodegradable material candidates for the future. This paper reviews the present state-of-the-art biodegradable polymers made from renewable resources and discusses the main features of their properties and design.


Improving the colloidal stability of Cellulose nano-crystals by surface chemical grafting with polyacrylic acid

Dong Cheng*, Yangbing Wen, Xingye An, Xuhai Zhu, Xiaojuan Cheng, Linqiang Zheng, Joseph E Nasrallah


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(3), 114-119    Original Paper                                                                                                                          PDF Download


Cellulose nano-crystals (CNC) can be tailored for various value-added applications. However, its use in aqueous systems is hampered by its limited dispersability, especially at a high CNC concentration. In this study, the improvement of CNC colloidal stability by surface chemical grafting with polyacrylic acid (PAA) was investigated, and the zeta potential and the charge density of the chemically modified CNC were analyzed. The results showed that an acrylic dosage of 1% (based on the dry weight of CNC) was sufficient to significantly enhance the colloidal stability. CNC, after chemical grafting with PAA, showed better stability against the increase in storage time or solid content of the aqueous medium, compared with the un-modified CNC.



 Numerical simulation of the motion of cellulose fibers in a centrifugal cleaner

Zhijun Hu*, Jiang Lin, Jessica Wu


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(3), 120-126   Original Paper                                                                                                                          PDF Download


Centrifugal cleaners are commonly used in the pulp and paper industry to separate contaminates from pulp fibers. To reveal the separation mechanism of cellulose fibers and impurities in a centrifugal cleaner, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were established based on experimental analyses with the inlet flow rate and outlet diameter as the variables. The incompressible three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations were applied to describe the fluid motion. Numerical simulation results showed that an increased inlet flow rate could improve the efficiency by enhance of the centrifugal force on particles. Secondary swirling patterns were predominant for centrifugal cleaners with smaller lower outlets. The crowding effect played an important role in the separation of heavy contaminants, and the separating efficiency was proportional to the inlet flow rate and inverse proportional to the lower outlet diameter.   

Thermo-Responsive Cellulose Papers Grafted with Poly(Di(Ethylene Glycol) Methyl Ether Methacrylate)

Weibing Wu*,Ruyuan Song, Jian Li, Zhiliang Zhuang


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(3), 127-131   Original Paper                                                                                                                       PDF Download


Novel thermo-responsive cellulose papers were prepared via grafting poly (di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (PDEGMA) by activators regenerating electron transfer (ARGET) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Attenuated total refraction Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements of the modified paper showed that PDEGMA brushes were successfully grafted on the paper surface. The thermal stability of the papers before and after grafting was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The PDEGMA-grafted paper exhibited a two-step thermal degradation process, and presented thermo-responsive characteristics. It was hydrophilic at room temperature but changed rapidly to highly hydrophobic when the temperature rose above 50 °C.




 Stability of partially deacetylated chitin nano-fiber dispersions mediated by protonic acids

 Zhiguo Wang, Hui Li, Liang Liu, Jie Jiang, Ke Zheng, Helen Ocampo, Yimin Fan*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(3), 132-138   Original Paper                                                                                                                        PDF Download


Partially deacetylated chitin nano-fiber (DAChN) dispersions were prepared using mechanical treatment of partially deacetylated crab shell α-chitin under acidic conditions mediated by various protonic acids. The representative organic acids had a better efficiency in terms of mediating the nanofibrillation of chitin fibers in comparison to the inorganic acid (HCl). The DAChN dispersed in water at a pH of 3.5 mediated by gluconic acid exhibited the highest yield of nano-fibers (88.6%), followed by succinic, itaconic, and ascorbic acids with a nano-fiber yield of 79.9%, 73.3% and 66.0%, respectively. The pH, conductivity, viscosity, and light transmittance of dispersions were assessed under different storage times. All of the tested DAChN dispersions were stable for at least 15 weeks at 4 °C.


Observation of liquid crystalline collagen with atomic force microscopy (AFM)

 Min Zhang, Cuicui Ding, Lihui Chen*, Liulian Huang, Junhui Yang


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(3), 139-144    Original Paper                                                                                                                      PDF Download


The effects of concentration and sonication on the liquid crystalline phases of collagen were investigated by several methods, especially by the atomic force microscopy (AFM). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed that the triple-helical structure of the collagen was nearly unchanged after sonication. Moreover, the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) examinations indicated that the thermal stability of the sonicated collagen was close to that of native collagen. The AFM observations showed that collagen with a concentration of 60 mg/mL had more ordered arrays compared to that of 30 mg/mL when both samples were treated by sonication. Furthermore, the 60 mg/mL collagen solution without sonication could still form pre-cholesteric patterns, while the liquid phase could not be observed for the 30 mg/mL collagen solution under the same conditions. Generally, AFM was an effective tool for the study of the liquid crystalline phases of collagen.


Lignin extraction and recovery in hydrothermal pretreatment of bamboo

Xin Zheng, Xiaojuan Ma, Lihui Chen, Liulian Huang, Shilin Cao, Joseph Nasrallah


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(3), 145-151   Original Paper                                                                                                                       PDF Download


A significant amount of lignin and hemicellulose are dissolved in the hydrothermal treatment of biomass. The hemicellulose can be recovered and utilized for value-added products. The dissolved lignin can undergo depolymerization and condensation reactions, and interferes with the separation and purification process for hemicellulose recovery. This paper investigated the behavior of the lignin extracted from the hydrothermal pretreatment of bamboo and its contributions to the physical characteristics of the hydrolysate. It was found that the turbidity of the hydrolysate was strongly associated with the lignin fragments and suspended long chain hemicelluloses. As the lignin depolymerization and condensation reactions occurred simultaneously, the dissolved lignin fractions in the hydrolysate increased first and then decreased. The molecular weight (MW) of the dissolved lignin fragments ranged from 3342 ~ 5611 g/mol, with mainly guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) unit in the structure.


 Effect of magnesium hydroxide as cigarette paper filler to reduce cigarette smoke toxicity

Xian Lu, Mingyou Liu*, Zhibin He


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(3), 152-158   Original Paper                                                                                                                        PDF Download


The use of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) was proposed as a filler to replace part of the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in cigarette paper and reduce the toxicity of the smoke from cigarettes. Physical property changes and smoke reducing ability of this possible substitution were effectively studied. The results showed that adding 10% Mg(OH)2 could meet the requirements of the physical property of the cigarette paper. Moreover, with the addition of Mg(OH)2 as a filler in the cigarette paper, the pyrolysis temperature of the cigarette paper decreased, while the porosity and specific surface area increased. As a result, the main-stream smoke had a lower smoke total particle matter (STMP), tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide content, and the side-stream smoke also had a lower STMP.






Volume 1, Issue 2 (May 2016)


Filling agricultural waste into coal mine goafs: a potential carbon sequestration in China

Hongbin Liu, Xingye An, Jing Shen*, Yonghao Ni*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(2), 55-57 Opinion                                                                                                                                 PDF Download

China is a significant atmospheric carbon dioxide producer. Burning of agricultural waste in China is also a problematic issue, raising environmental and carbon-emission-related concerns. Furthermore, the coal-dependent economy is accompanied by the formation of large coal mine goaf areas, particularly in Shanxi Province. In this context, the idea of filling crop residues into the coal mine goafs is proposed. This concept addresses multi-functions: (1) carbon sequestration, (2) an alternative disposal method of crop residue in rural areas, and (3) coal mine goaf remedy.


Dissociation of intra/inter-molecular hydrogen bonds of cellulose molecules in the dissolution process: a mini review

Xingya Kang, Shigenori Kuga, Limei Wang, Min Wu*, Yong Huang*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(2), 58-63    Review Paper                                                                                                                            PDF Download


Cellulose is abundant in nature, with the advantages of low-cost, biodegradable and biocompatible, low density and high strength. However, the development and application of cellulose has been lagging behind its potential due to its unique properties. Cellulose has a large quantity of hydroxyl groups which can easily form hydrogen bond networks. The huge hydrogen bond network makes it extremely difficult to dissolve or melt cellulose, thus limiting the effective use of cellulose resources. To dissolve cellulose, the key is to break the hydrogen bonds. This article sums up recent studies on the dissociation or breakage of the intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the dissolution of cellulose.




Adsorption characteristics of surfactants on secondary wood fiber surface

Zhen Tang, Jie Zheng, Ying Han, Guangwei Sun*, Shuo Hu, Yifu Wang, Jinghui Zhou


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(2), 64-73   Original Paper                                                                                                                          PDF Download


Surfactant residues in recycled wood fiber from the deinking process can have impact on the subsequent bleaching and papermaking processes by increasing bleaching agents and disturbing papermaking wet-end chemistry. In this paper, the fundamental mechanism of surfactants adsorption characteristics on secondary fiber surface was studied. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and a non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-100 (TX-100) on secondary fiber surface with or without the presence of electrolytes (Mg2+ ions) were studied by using spectrophotometric methods. Results showed that the adsorption isotherm of SDBS could be subdivided into four regions, and the adsorption of SDBS was increased with the presence of Mg2+ ions. While for TX-100, the adsorption isotherm showed typically Langmuir-type adsorption, and its adsorption was decreased with the presence of Mg2+ ions. Kinetic analysis indicated that the adsorption processes both fit pseudo-second-order model well. The adsorption rate of both surfactants was affected by the initial surfactant concentration, electrolyte and temperature. The activation parameters confirmed that the adsorption processes of both surfactants were typically diffusion-controlled and endothermic at a temperature range commonly used for current flotation deinking processes. SDBS and TX-100 mainly adsorbed to the hydrophobic sites of secondary fibers surface, which decreased the fiber hydrophobicity and reduced the fiber loss in the flotation deinking process. The results suggested that the concentration of Mg2+ ions should be maintained at a low level when SDBS was used in the flotation process.


Preparation and chemical characterization of banana/orange composite wine

Hongmei Deng, Chun Wang*, Huining Xiao, Avik Khan


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(2), 74-79   Original Paper                                                                                                                       PDF Download


Banana/orange composite wine was brewed in the lab by liquid fermentation using angel yeast and lactic acid bacteria as the fermentation strains, and characterized by chemical analyses. It was found that the best ratio of banana juice to navel orange juice was 1:2, and the optimum alcohol fermentation parameters were as follows: 28~30°C, 22% initial sugar content, 6% yeast, and 6 days of fermentation to reach an alcohol concentration of 11.63% v/v. The free amino acids in the composite wines were tested by automatic amino acid analyzer, and the flavor components of the composite wine were determined and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Seven types of trace elements in the composite wine were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Results showed that there were 17 free amino acids, and their total concentration was up to 897.6 mg/L. A total of 16 key compounds were identified in the composite wine, 11 of which were ester, 4 of which were alcohols and 1 of which was acid. Magnesium, iron, copper and manganese elements were relatively rich in the wine, while lead was extremely low.



A facile approach towards self-reinforced antibacterial paper (SRAP)

Jinxia Ma, Wenhua Zhu, Pu Ma*, Zhiguo Wang, Xiaofan Zhou, Huining Xiao


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(2), 80-84   Original Paper                                                                                                                        PDF Download


A facile process to prepare self-reinforced antibacterial paper (SRAP) was developed by in situ synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) in partially dissolved cellulose. The SRAP was fabricated by impregnating filter paper in zinc chloride (ZnCl2) solution and then reacting with sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Filter paper was firstly impregnated with ZnCl2 solution of 65 wt% concentration for 5 seconds at 80 °C, and then pressed at 3.85 kPa for 5 seconds to remove excess liquid. Subsequently, the paper was soaked in a 0.8 wt% NaOH solution for 1 hour, and then washed with deionized water, and dried finally to yield SRAP. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the SRAP. The results revealed that the SRAP contained intact cellulose fibers as the skeleton, gelled cellulose as the matrix, and clusters of nano ZnO particles as the filler. The SRAP had a much higher density, tensile and burst strength, compared with the untreated cellulose paper, and the folding strength was enhanced by more than fifteen times. In addition, the SRAP had outstanding antibacterial properties due to the presence of nano ZnO particles


Soda pulping of umbrella palm grass (cyperus flabettiformic)

M. Sarwar Jahan*, M. Nasir Uddin, Asif Rahman, M. Mostafizur Rahman and M. Nurul Amin


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(2), 85-91    Original Paper                                                                                                                      PDF Download


Chemical, morphological and anatomical characteristics of Cyperus flabettiformic were evaluated. It is characterized with low α-cellulose (32.2%) and moderate lignin (24.0%) content.  Fiber length of C. flabettiformic was shorter (0.94mm) but slender ratio was extremely high (166). Anatomically, this grass is constituted by homogeneous parenchyma cells and the vascular bundles (11.8%). Delignification of C. flabettiformic was carried out by conventional soda pulping under varying alkali charge, time and liquor to material ratio at the boiling temperature. Total pulp yield was 55.0% with kappa number 15.5 at the cooking conditions of 12% alkali charge, 2 h of cooking and liquor to material ratio 10:1. Multivariate data analysis was used to evaluate the influence of alkali charge, cooking time and liquor ratio on pulp yield and kappa number. Alkali charge had a significant effect on pulp yield and kappa number. PLSR model showed better prediction efficiencies for pulp yield and PCR model performed better prediction for kappa number. Initial drainage resistance and papermaking properties of C. flabettiformic pulp were higher than other nonwood.



Solubilization and Fractionation of Japanese Beech Wood with LiCl and DMSO

Zhiguo Wang, Lili Zhang, Yimin Fan, Yiqin Yang*, Yuji Matsumoto


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(2), 92-99   Original Paper                                                                                                                       PDF Download


The solubility of beech wood cell wall in 8% lithium chloride/dimethyl sulfoxide (LiCl/DMSO) was investigated with an ethylenediamine (EDA) pretreatment without ball milling. EDA pretreatment of the wood cell wall was found to be an efficient method for the solubilization of the majority of the wood cell wall while avoiding the destructive effects of milling on the structure of the wood cell wall components. The yield of the final insoluble fraction was only approximately 31.6% based on the original Wiley wood sample after two EDA pretreatments and the dissolving processes. The solubility of lignocellulosic material in 8% LiCl/DMSO increased with decreasing lignin content after an EDA pretreatment. The yield of the insoluble fraction decreased from 62.9% to 9.2% with a decrease of lignin content from 28.0% to 14.1%. When the lignin content of lignocellulosic material was relatively low (approximately 10.5%), it could be dissolved in 8% LiCl/DMSO after an EDA pretreatment. The EDA pretreatment of wood meal had a much greater effect on polysaccharides than on the lignin in wood cell wall.


Electrochemical oxidation of chemi-thermo-mechanical pulping wastewater

Zhijun Hu*, Yuejin Zhang, Danyu Wang


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(2), 100-105   Original Paper                                                                                                                        PDF Download


Chemi-thermo-mechanical pulping (CTMP) wastewater has high chemical oxygen demand (COD), which inhibits the activity of microorganisms during biological oxidations. Conventional wastewater treatment technologies such as dissolved air flotation, coagulation, and biological treatment, are insufficient to treat the CTMP wastewater to meet the environmental requirements. There remains a need for advanced wastewater treatment technologies, which can be integrated into existing wastewater treatment processes to improve the end-of-pipe water quality. In this study, a heterogeneous electrochemical oxidation process was developed to treat chemi-thermo-mechanical pulp mill wastewater. The Ti substrate anodes were prepared by thermal decomposition and electro-deposition, and characterized by SEM and Tafel curve. The impacts of electrode modification, flowrate, current density, and aeration on the process efficiency were investigated. COD and color density were used to evaluate the removal efficiency of organic pollutants. Results show that the Ti/SnO2+Sb2O3+MnO2/PbO2 electrode exhibited the best performance in terms of COD and color removal efficiency. SEM observation revealed that the electrode surface was smooth and compact, with numerous uniform micro pores of which the inner walls were covered with tiny crystals. Under the studied conditions, color removal reached 90%, while COD removal was about 60%.







Volume 1, Issue 1 (February 2016)



About the Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts (JBB)

Zhibin He*, Jianshu Li*, and Huining Xiao*    


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(1), 1-2 Editorial                                                                                                                           PDF Download

The Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts (JBB) is devoted to publish high-quality peer-reviewed technical research articles on the science and technology related to bio-resources and bio-products. As the petroleum-based economy will be phasing out in a foreseeable period of time, the industrial and scientific societies are paying much attention to the renewable and sustainable resources: bioresources. There is a strong need to provide an additional forum for the researchers and product developers to share knowledges and new research findings in a wider range of areas of bioresources and bioproducts.




Preparation of guanidine-modified starch for enhancing strength property and antimicrobial activity of medical paper

Kai Liu*, Xinxing Lin, Lihui Chen, Liulian Huang  


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(1), 3-6    Communication                                                                                                                   PDF Download


Paper suffers from non-antimicrobial activity and low mechanical strength when used in medical field. In order to improve these properties, a guanidine-modified starch was successfully prepared via two reaction steps using guanidine hydrochloride (GH) as a modifier. FTIR demonstrated that GH was successfully grafted on starch via the Schiff base reaction. After coating of the modified starch on paper, the dry and wet strength indexes of the coated paper increased 25 and 100%, respectively, as compared to the control sample. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the coated paper against E. coli and S. aureus was tested using the disc diffusion method, and the results indicated that the coated paper exhibited excellent antimicrobial activities against E. coli and S. aureus, thus may be a kind of promising medical paper.




Advances of cyclodextrin polymers for the delivery of biotech drugs

Yanpeng Liu and Jianshu Li*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(1), 7-17   Review Paper                                                                                                                        PDF Download


Currently, biological drugs such as gene, protein, and monoclonal antibody are widely applied in the clinic due to their excellent effectiveness. However, they still have some problems, including poor solubility, instability, toxicity, and weak capability to cross cell mem­branes. Owing to the specific structure of cyclodextrins (CDs) and the advantage of polymeric backbones, various cyclodextrin polymers (CDPs) have been designed as delivery systems for biotech drugs. In this review, after a brief introduction on CDPs and discussion of their physicochemical and biological properties, we will focus on recent advances in the use of CDPs for the delivery of biotech drugs. This review highlights the structure-function relationship of CDPs to their performance in biotech drug delivery. Finally, an outlook will be proposed on the developing trends and challenge in this field.


Potential of cellulose-based materials for the preparation of separator membranes for lithium-ion batteries (LIB)

Dong Cheng, Xue Yang, Zhibin He*, and Yonghao Ni*


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(1), 18-21   Review Paper                                                                                                                        PDF Download


Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) are the dominant power sources for many consumer electronics, and they can also be large-scale power sources/energy storage devices, which can be credited to their advantages: high efficiency, high energy density, long cycling life. The separator membrane is a critical component of LIB. It is a barrier between the cathode and anode electrodes in order to prevent electrical short circuits. The critical parameters to meet high quality separator membranes include: high dimensional/thermal/chemical stability, good wettability, high mechanical strength, good porosity and pore size distribution. Conventionally, plastic materials, such as polyolefin, are the main materials for manufacturing LIB separator membrane. Cellulose and its related material, due to their unique properties, can meet the quality specifications of LIB separator membranes; in addition, they are abundant, low cost, green and sustainable nature, among others. Therefore, cellulose and its related material can be very promising for replacing polyolefin-based LIB separator membrane. In this short communication, relevant literature on the topic was reviewed and further development/improvement of cellulose-based LIB separator membrane will be discussed.



Effect of hot-water extraction on organosolv delignification and lignin recovery from sugar maple

Chen Gong* and Biljana Bujanovic


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(1), 22-29   Original Paper                                                                                                                  PDF Download


This paper reported a gradual disassembly of hardwoods, starting with hot-water extraction (HWE) for the removal of hemicelluloses, followed by organosolv delignification to remove the lignin. In mild acid conditions of HWE, in addition to hemicelluloses, lower molecular weight lignin fractions are removed (~15% of the total lignin); also, the cleavage of acid-labile lignin-carbohydrate bond takes place to certain extent. Therefore, the pretreatment is expected to promote the subsequent delignification process and facilitate lignin recovery, providing a higher efficiency in delignification and a higher purity of lignin recovered from the spent liquor. The benefits of HWE performed prior to delignification on the lignin recovered from AWO and ALCELL processes were examined in this study, focusing on the delignification efficiency of AWO and ALCELL processes, and the properties of the lignin extracted from sugar maple with/without HWE pretreatment.




Poultry keratin based decolorants for dyeing wastewater treatment

Bi Chen*,  Long Yan, Xia Liu, and Jessica L. Worrall


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(1), 30-35    Original Paper                                                                                                                  PDF Download


One of the challenges in wastewater treatment is the low efficiency in decoloring dyeing wastewater. Chicken feather, as a waste material, has a great potential in decoloring the dyeing wastewater. In this study, a lab synthesized dyeing wastewater prepared with acid blue-A dye was treated with a chicken feather keratin-based composite decolorant KA (keratin agent) using batch decoloration techniques. A modified KA (MKA) was also developed to improve the decoloration efficiency. The decoloration performance of the two decolorants was then evaluated in terms of decoloring rate, at various decolorant dosages, pH, reaction temperature and time. Under optimal conditions, the decoloration rates of the KA and MKA in treating the dyeing wastewater were 91.8% and 94.3%, respectively. IR and TEM results indicated that the KA and MKA decolorants removed the dye stuff from the dyeing wastewater by physical adsorption as well as chemical reactions.


Synthesis of cationic styrene-acrylic acid ester copolymer emulsion for paper sizing

Xinlei Wu, Youjia Cui, Yi Jing*, and Joseph Mosseler


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(1), 36-41   Original Paper                                                                                                                  PDF Download


Surface sizing is an effective way to increase paper’s water-resistance and printability. The purpose of this study was to study synthesis process to develop an efficient cationic styrene-acrylic acid ester emulsion (SAE) for the surface sizing of paper. Dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate methyl chloride (DMC) was used as the cationic monomer, and cationic starch or native starch was used as the emulsion stabilizer to copolymerize with styrene and butyl acrylate. The results indicated that the SAE synthesized with cationic starch and DMC had a high cationic charge density and a high DMC conversion rate. Paper sized with the cationic SAE had higher surface strength and lower Cobb value than the paper sized with other surface sizing agents such as, anionic SAE, and cationic or oxidized starch. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the paper sized with a combination of oxidized starch and cationic SAE had smoother surface morphology when compared to the paper sized with oxidized starch alone, or with oxidized starch and anionic SAE.

0_004  淀粉1200  表胶1200  2-1_002                

Ameliorated enzymatic saccharification of corn stover with a novel modified alkali pretreatment

Guang Yu , Huanfei Xu, Chao Liu, Paul DeRoussel, Chunyan Zhang, Yuedong Zhang, Bin Li*, Haisong Wang*, and Xindong Mu


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(1), 42-47   Original Paper                                                                                                                    PDF Download


Enzymatic saccharification/hydrolysis is one of the key steps for the bioconversion of lignocelluloses into sustainable biofuels. In this work, the NaOH pretreated and modified alkali pretreated (NaOH + anthraquinone (AQ) + sodium lignosulfonate (SLS)) corn stover were enzymatically hydrolyzed respectively with the same enzyme cocktail (cellulase (Celluclast 1.5L), β-glucosidase (Novozyme 188) and xylanase (from thermomyceslanuginosus)) in the pH range of 4.0-6.5. It was found that the suitable pH for achieving high glucan yield was between 4.2 and 5.7, while the appropriate pH for obtaining high xylan yield was in the range of 4.0-4.7, and the highest final total sugar yield was obtained after enzymatic saccharification at pH 4.4. This was possibly because the most suitable pH for xylanase was in the range of 4.0-4.7. Also, the addition of xylanase could hydrolyze xylan in the substrates and reduce the nonspecific binding of cellulase, thus significantly improving final total sugar yields.



Improving the electroconductivity and mechanical properties of cellulosic paper with multi-walled carbon nanotube polyaniline nanocomposites

Xiaochuang Shen, Yanjun Tang*, Dingding Zhou, Junhua Zhang, Daliang Guo, and Gustavo Friederichs


J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 1(1), 48-54    Original Paper                                                                                                                   PDF Download


Cellulose is the most abundant renewable polymer in nature, and cellulosic paper is widely used in our daily life. Conferring electro-conductivity to cellulosic paper would allow this conventional material to hold great promise for a wide range of energy-related applications. In the present work, multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites were synthesized via in situ oxidation polymerization process and characterized by FT-IR and TEM. Subsequently, the application of the synthesized MWCNT/PANI nanocomposites as a wet-end filler for the production of electro-conductive paper was demonstrated/developed. Results showed that the cellulosic paper was imparted with an electro-conductivity of up to 0.14 S·m-1 while exhibiting a pronounced improvement in mechanical properties as a function of the added MWCNT/PANI nanocomposites

a  b c d