Cover Image

Characterization of primary and secondary wastewater treatment sludge from a pulp and board mill complex to evaluate the feasibility of utilization as a soil amendment agent and a fertilizer product

Risto Pöykiö, Gary Watkins, Olli Dahl

Abstract


In this study, we have determined the main important physical and chemical properties as well as the heavy metal concentrations of the primary and secondary wastewater treatment sludge from a pulp and board mill complex located in Finland in order to evaluate the utilization of these by-products as a soil amendment agent or a fertilizer product. Easily soluble Ca, Mg, K, Na, P and S concentrations in the sludges were extracted by ammonium acetate (CH3COONH4) and easily soluble Cu, Mn and Zn concentrations by CH3COONH4 + Na2EDTA. For the determination of total nutrient and total heavy metal concentrations in sludges, they were digested using aqua regia (3 mL HCl + 9 mL HNO3). The total heavy concentrations in the primary sludge were lower than the Finnish heavy metal limit values for fertilizer products. In the secondary sludge, all other total heavy metals than the total Cd concentration (4.8 mg/kg; d.w.) were lower than the heavy metal limit values for fertilizer products. Due to the low total heavy metal concentrations, which were lower than the Finnish limit values for fertilizer products, the primary sludge is a potential fertilizer. Although the total Cd concentration (4.8 mg/kg; d.w.) in the secondary sludge exceed the limit value of 1.5 mg/kg (d.w.) for fertilizer products, this residue may be used as a soil improver, a growing media or as a fertilizer product in landfill sites or in other closed industrial areas, because the Finnish limit values for fertilizer products are not applied at these sites.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Bratina B., Šorgo A., Kramberger J., Ajdnik U., Zemljič L.F., Ekart J., Šafarič R. From municipal/industrial wastewater sludge and FOG to fertilizer: A proposal for economic sustainable sludge management. Journal of Environmental Management, 2016, 183: 1009-1025.

Husgafvel R., Karjalainen E., Linkosalmi L., Dahl O. Recycling industrial residue streams into a potential new symbiosis product - The case of soil amelioration granules. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2016, 135: 90-96.

Monte M.C., Fuente E., Blanco A., Negro C. Waste management from pulp and paper production in the European Union. Waste Management, 2009, 29: 293-308.

Akbary N., Kalamdhad A., Koch M. Anaerobic digestion of dewatered primary sludge (DPMS) from the Nagaon paper mill Morigaon Assam. Pollution Research, 2017, 36: 159-167.

Ashrafi O., Yerushalmi L., Haghighat F. Wastewater treatment in the pulp-and paper industry: A review of treatment processes and the associated greenhouse gas emission. Journal of Environmental Management, 2017, 158: 146-157.

Aycan, N., Turan, N.G., Ozgonenel, O. Optimization of process parameters for composting of pulp/paper mill sludge with hazelnut kernel using a statistical method. Environmental Protection Engineering, 2014, 40: 127-138.

Kinnunen, V., Ylä-Outinen, A., Rintala, J. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper industry biosludge - long-term reactor performance and effects of thermal pretreatment. Water Research, 2015, 87: 105-111.

Slade A.H., Ellis R.J,, vanden Heuvel M., Stuthridge T.R. Nutrient minimisation in the pulp and paper industry: an overview. Water Science Technology, 2004, 50: 111-122.

Lopes C., Herva M., Franco-Uría A., Roca E. Inventory of heavy metal content in organic waste applied as fertilizer in agriculture: evaluating the risk of transfer into the food chain. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2011, 18: 918-939.

Keskisaari, A., Kärki T. (2017) Raw material potential of recyclable materials for fiber composites: a review study. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 2017, 19: 1136-1143.

EPA: Industrial waste resources guidelines-sampling and analysis of waters, wastewaters, soils and wastes. 2009. http://epanote2.epa.vic.gov.au. Accessed 5 February 2018.

Stylianou M.A., Kollia D., Haralambous K.J., Inglezakis V.J., Moustakas K.G., Loizidou M.D. Effect of acid treatment on the removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge. Desalination, 2007; 215: 73-81.

Khaliq S.J.A., Al-Busaidi A., Ahmed M., Al-Wardy M., Agrama H., Choudri B.S. The effect of municipal sewage sludge on the quality of soil and crops. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 2017, 6: 289-299.

Pöykiö R., Manskinen K., Oksanen J., Nurmesniemi H., Dahl O. Chemical characterisation of biosludge from a wastewater treatment plant in a neutral sulphite semi-chemical pulp mill by single and sequential extraction of heavy metals and micro-/macronutrients - a case study. Chemical Papers, 2014, 68: 1546-1554.

Yafa C., Farmer J.G. A comparative study of acid-extractable and total digestion methods for the determination of inorganic elements in peat material by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta, 2006, 557: 296-303.

Kaakinen J., Kuokkanen T., Pesonen J., Välimäki I. Comparison of different standard methods to evaluate the total concentrations of heavy metals in waste rock. Soil and Sediment Contamination, 2014, 23: 437-451.

Jackson M.J., Line M.A. Organic composition of a pulp and paper mill sludge determined by FTIR, 13C CP MAS NMR, and chemical extraction techniques. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1997, 45: 2354-2358.

Lawrence R.W., Scheske M. A method to calculate the neutralization potential of mining wastes. Environmental Geology, 1997, 32: 100-106.

Rajkumar K. An evaluation of biological approach for the effluent treatment of paper boards industry - An economic perspective. Journal of Bioremediation and Biodegradation, 2016, 7: 366.

Ribeiro P., Albuquerque A., Quinta-Nova L., Cavaleiro V. Recycling pulp mill sludge to improve soil fertility using GIS tools. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 2010, 54: 1303-131.

Abdullah R., Ishak C.F., Kadir W.R., Bakar R.A. Characterization and feasibility assessment of recycled paper mill sludges for land application in relation to the environment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2015, 12: 9314-9329.

Forssell-Tattari I. Biosludge and its ash content in a wastewater treatment plant of a pulp mill. Master Thesis, 2009. University of Tampere, Finland.

Mahmood T., Elliott A. A review of secondary sludge reduction technologies for the pulp and paper industry. Water Research, 2006; 40: 2093-2112.

Yang G.C.C., Chen M.C., Yeh C.F. Dewatering of a biological industrial sludge by electrokinetics-assisted filter press. Separation and Purification Technology, 2011, 79: 177-182.

Tuan P.A., Sillanpää M. Fractionation of macro and trace metals due to off-time interrupted electrodewatering. Drying Technology, 2010, 28: 762-772.

Pham A.T., Sillanpää M., Virkutyte J. Sludge dewatering by sand-drying bed coupled with electro-dewatering at various potentials. International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment, 2010, 24: 151-162.

Zbytniewski, R., Buszewski, B. Characterization of natural organic matter (NOM) derived from sewage sludge compost. Part 1: chemical and spectroscopic properties. Bioresource Technology, 2005, 96: 471-478.

Catricala C.E., Bowden W.B., Smith C.T., McDowell W.H. Chemical characteristics of leachate from pulp and paper mill residuals used to reclaim a sandy soil. Water, Air & Soil Pollution, 1996, 89: 167-187.

Finnish Government Decree on Landfills (331/2013; amendments up to 960/2016 included). Ministry of the Environment, Finland, 2013. https://www.finlex.fi. Accessed on 8 February 2018.

Sogn T.A., Dragicevic I., Linjordet R., Krogstad T., Eijsink V.G.H., Eich-Greatorex S. Recycling of biogas digestates in plant production: NPK fertilizer value and risk of leaching. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Wastes in Agriculture, 2018, 7: 49-58.

Rios D., Pérez C., Sandoval M. Phytotoxic effect of paper pulp sludge on Alfisol soil. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 2012, 12: 315-327.

Van Herck P., Vandecasteele C. Evaluation of the use of a sequential extraction procedure for the characterization and treatment of metal containing solid waste. Waste Management, 2001, 21: 685-694.

Miller T. Comparative environmental assessment of organic and mineral fertilizers - Case study of BioA fertilizer produced from industrial waste. Master Thesis, 2013. Aalto University, Finland.

Valkama M. Rovaniemen taajama-alueiden maaperän taustapitoisuudet. Master Thesis, 2017. University of Oulu, Finland. www.jultika.oulu.fi. Accessed 20 February.

Fältmarsch R. Biogeochemistry in acid sulphate soil landscapes and small urban centres in Western Finland. Doctoral Thesis, 2010. Åbo Akademi University, Finland. https://www.doria.fi. Accessed 23 January 2018.

Demeyer A., Voundi Nkana J.C., Verloo M.G. Characteristics of wood ash and influence on soil properties and nutrient uptake: an overview. Bioresource Technology, 2001, 77: 287-295.

Albanese S. Evaluation of the bioavailability of potentially harmful elements in urban soils through ammonium acetate-EDTA extraction: a case study in southern Italy. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, 2008, 8: 49-57.

Lumme I. Early effects of peat ash on growth and mineral nutrition of the silver birch (Betula pendula) on a mined peatland. Silva Fennica, 1988, 22: 99-112.

Rashid M.T., Barry D., Goss M. Paper mill biosolids application to agricultural lands: benefits and environmental concerns with special reference to situation in Canada. Soil & Environment, 2006, 25: 85-98

Utanun P. Feasibility of the use of recycled nutrients in fast growing pulpwood production. Master Thesis, 2015. LUT School of Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology. https://www.doria.fi. Accessed 11 January 2018.

Camberato J.J., Gagnon B., Angers D.A., Chantigny M.H., Pan W.L. Pulp and paper mill by-products as soil amendments and plant nutrient sources. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 2006, 86: 641-653.

Rato Nunes J., Cabral F., López-Piñeiro A. Short-term effects on soil properties and wheat production from secondary paper sludge application on two Mediterranean agricultural soils. Bioresource Technology, 2008, 99: 4935-4942.

Lannoitevalmistelaki (539/2006) (Finnish Fertilizer Product Act 539/2006, amendments up to 340/2010 included). (2006). https://www.finlex.fi. Accessed 14 March 2018.

Lannoitevalmisteasetus (24/11) Maa- ja metsätalousministeriön asetus lannoitevalmisteista (Finnish Decree on Fertilizer Products). (2011). https://www.finlex.fi. Accessed 14 March 2018.

Alakangas E., Hurskainen M., Laatikainen-Luntama J., Korhonen J. Properties of indigenous fuels in Finland. 2016. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd. http://vtt.fi. Accessed 4 January 2018.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21967/jbb.v3i3.174

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Risto Pöykiö, Gary Watkins, Olli Dahl

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.