Total ion chromatograms of epoxidized fatty acid methyl esters (EFAME) and unreacted methyl ester (UFAME) for GC-MS analysis

Synthesis of Bio-base Plasticizer Using Waste Cooking Oil and Its Performance Testing in Soft Poly(vinyl chloride) Films

Guodong FENG, Yan MA, Meng ZHANG, Puyou JIA, Chengguo LIU, Yonghong ZHOU


Waste cooking oil was modified to prepare bio-base plasticizers (a, b and c) with terephthalic acid, adipic acid and benzoic acid by transesterification, epoxidation and ring opening reactions, respectively. The polyvinyl chloride (PVC) films (a/PVC, b/PVC and c/PVC) were prepared using a, b and c as bio-base plasticizers. The epoxidation and ring opening reactions were mainly investigated through GC-MS analysis. The structures of bio-base plasticizers (a, b and c) were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), 1H NMR and 13C NMR. The mechanical properties of a/PVC were as good as those of PVC films with the dioctyl phthalate (DOP) plasticizer. Meanwhile, the elongation at break of c/PVC reached 422%. The glass transition temperature (Tg) from dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was reduced to 30.6℃, 45.3℃, 23.6℃ and 40.6℃, respectively when 40 phr of a, b, c and DOP plasticizer were added. Results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) illustrated that the thermal degradation stabilitiy of a/PVC films was better than those of c/PVC and DOP/PVC. The volatility losses of a, b and c were lower than that of the DOP. Bio-base plasticizers a and c exhibited excellent migration resistance in different solutions (distilled water, 50% ethanol (w/w)). The FT-IR of PVC films showed that the downfield shifts of the -CH-Cl groups of the PVC plasticized with a and c were greater than that of b/PVC. The bio-base plasticizers b had a better plasticizing effect at low temperature.

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